Category Archives: Agriculture

Now available: printed and online versions of a book on SRI for Filipino rice farmers

A new 137-page book on the system of rice intensification (SRI) written specifically for the typical Filipino farmer is now available. It is hard-bound, written in Pilipino, and printed on larger-than-usual types (13 pts).

The book Ang Sistema sa Pagpapalago ng Palay can be ordered from SRI Pilipinas (63-939-117-8999; 63-917-811-7747). The book’s P300 price includes shipping. The book will be delivered by courier to any Philippine address or sent for pick up in a courier outlet nearest the given address. A free DVD on SRI is also included.

If you have a friend or relative who plants rice, the book will make a very nice gift.

The full text of the book can also downloaded for free. Its electronic version consists of three PDF files:

SRI is the revolutionary method of growing rice which raises yields and cut costs through simple changes in the way the farmer grows rice. It works with any variety and has been successfully tried in more than 50 countries.

 

 

 

 

 

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SRI in SMS: Text lessons on rice production by SRI Pilipinas

Due to insistent requests, I am posting the following series of lessons in Tagalog/Pilipino on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). We send these lessons 5-18 SMS texts at a time to farmers who request them. Thus we are able to provide lessons to farmers who have no Internet, newspaper or television access.

1. World record sa palay harvest: 448 kaban sa isang ektarya

Balita! Noong Nov 2011 nakuha ng 5 ordinaryong rice farmers sa bansang India ang pinakamatataas na palay harvest kada ektarya sa buong mundo:

Sumant Kumar, 448 kaban (bagong world record sa palay harvest); Krishna Kumar, 440; Nitish Kumar, 392; Ramanand Singh, 384 kaban; at Sanjay Kumar, 380.

Lahat ng 5 ay gumamit ng SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI), na natutuhan lang nila noong 2008. Matapos ang 3 taon, na-break na nila ang world record.

Para makumpirma ang report, inimbistiga ng mga awtoridad sa agrikultura ng India ang mga bukid ng lima. At pinatotohanan nila ang mga nareport na ani.

Ang lumang world record (380 kaban) ay hawak ng bantog na scientist si Yuan Longping, imbentor ng hybrid rice, na 40 taon nagresearch tungkol sa palay.

Ito ang kahulugan ng bagong world record sa palay harvest: Magsasaka, tinalo ang siyentista — ANG SRI AY MADALING MATUTUHAN NG MAGSASAKA

Tatlong taon lng, hindi dekada ang kinailangan ng mga magsasaka para makakuha ng napakatataas na ani — SA SRI, MABILIS ANG RESULTA.

Hindi lang isa kundi 5 magsasaka ang tumalo sa lumang world record–HINDI ITO TSAMBA, TOTOONG EPEKTIBO ANG SRI, MADALING MATUTUHAN AT MABILIS ANG RESULTA

Hinati ni Sumant Kumar ang kanyang bukid sa dalawa: sa isa, karaniwang sistema ang ginamit niya, sa kabila, sistemang SRI ang ginamit nya.

Sa karaniwang sistema, umani sya ng 130 kaban/ektarya. Sa sistemang SRI, umani siya ng 448 kaban/ektarya. Malinaw na mas epektibo ang SRI!

Sa mga susunod pang serye ng txt, ipaliliwanag namin ang SRI, para magamit din nyo ito sa inyong palayan. Libre ito. Walang mababawas sa load nyo.

Ang susunod na serye ay sa ITSURA NG PALAY NA MKPGBIBIGAY NG 22,400 KILONG BUTIL(448 kban) KADA EKTARYA, ang kailangang dami ng uhay at butil kada uhay.

Bago burahin yng mga naunang txt, pkikopya po sa notebook. Pwde n po b itext ang susunod n serye? Pkisend po 1 sa 3 sagot: “TXT PLS”/”HNDI PA”/”AYAW NA”
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2. Ang itsura ng palay na pang-world record

Ano ang hitsura ng palay na magbibigay ng world record na 22,400 kilo sa isang ektarya? Ilang uhay dapat sa 1 puno, ilang butil sa 1 uhay?

Sa SRI, 25 cm ang dstansya sa bawat puno, o 4 na puno kada 1 metro, 16 na puno (4 x 4) kada metro kwadrado, at 160,000 puno (16 x 10,000) sa 1 ektarya.

Kung paghahati-hatian ang 22,400 kilo ng butil ng 160,000 puno ng palay (22,400 hinati sa 160,000), kailangang magbigay ang isang puno ng .14 kilo.

Dahil 1 kilo ang karaniwang bigat ng 40,000 butil, ang .14 kilo ay may 5,600 butil (.14 x 40,000). Bawat puno, kng gayon, ay dapat mgbunga ng 5,600 butil.

Ito ang mga kombinasyon ng uhay-kada-puno at butil-kada-uhay na magbibigay ng 5,600 butil: 56 uhay/100 butil; 50 uhay/112 butil; 40 uhay/140 butil;

35 uhay/160 butil; 32 uhay/175 butil; 28 uhay/200 butil; 25 uhay/224 butil; 20 uhay/280 butil; 16 uhay; 350 butil.

Ayon sa mga matagal nang gumagamit ng SRI, madaling makakita sa SRI ng 20, 30 hanggang 40 uhay at 150 hanggang 250 butil.

Ang hamon, para maabot ang world record, ay makuha ito di lamang sa iilang puno, kundi sa bawat isa sa 160,000 puno sa 1 ektarya. Mahirap pero pwde.

Ang susunod na serye ay tngkol sa ANIM NA PRINSIPYO NG SRI. Ang mga prinsipyong ito’y hndi nagbabago, kahit magbago ang lugar o kondisyon ng gamit ng SRI.

Bago burahin yng mga naunang txt, pkikopya po sa notebook. Pwde n po b itext ang susunod n serye? Pkisagot lng po: “TXT PLS”/”HNDI PA”/”AYAW NA”
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3. Anim na prinsipyo ng SRI

PRINSIPYO 1. Mglagay ng maraming kompost/organikong mteryal sa lupa. BAKIT:ibabalik ng kmpost ang mga organismong natural na nagbibigay-sustansya sa lupa.

PRINSIPYO 2. Huwag saktan ang punla. BAKIT: pag nasaktan o nasugatan ang punla, laluna pag nagsimula na itong magsuwi, hndi na sya magsusuwi ng marami.

PRINSIPYO 3. Ilipat ang punla ng maaga. BAKIT: Mas madali itong gumaling mula sa anumang pnsala saka mas mahaba ang panahon nya para magsuwi ng marami.

PRINSIPYO 4. Bigyan ang bawat puno sapat na espasyong solo nila. BAKIT: para makakuha bawat puno ng sapat na sustansiya, tubig, hangin at sinag ng araw.

PRINSIPYO 5. Kailangang makapasok sa lupa ang hangin. BAKIT: dahil kailangan ng mga organismo sa lupa at ng mga ugat ng halaman ang oxygen.

PRINSIPYO 6. Tulungang lumago at lumalim ang ugat ng palay. BAKIT: Kung manipis at mababaw ang ugat, hndi magsusuwi at mamumunga ng marami ang palay.

Dalawa ang epekto ng 6 na prinsipyong ito sa palay: DADAMI ANG SUWI, UHAY AT BUTIL NG PALAY; AT KAKAPAL AT LALALIM ANG MGA UGAT NITO. Importante pareho.

Kahit ilan lang sa 6 na prinsipyo ang masunod, mkakakita na ng magandang epekto sa palay. Mas maraming prnsipyo ang nasusunod, mas maganda ang epekto.

Pnkamaganda kung lahat ng prnsipyo ng SRI ay nasusunod, dahil bawat prnsipyo ay sumusuporta sa iba pa. Madaling sundin lahat, kng maliit muna ang pitak.

Ang 6 na prinsipyo ng SRI ay dapat magsilbing gabay sa iba’t ibang lugar at kondisyon, dahil ang 6 na ito ang esensiya ng SRI bilang isang sistema.

Ang susunod na serye ay ang SARI-SARING PRAKTIKA NG SRI. Ang mga praktikang ito ay maaaring magbago batay sa lugar, kondisyon at diskarte ng magsasaka.

Bago burahin yng mga txt, pkikopya po sa notebook. Itetxt na po b namin ang susunod n serye? Pumili ng 1 sa 3 sagot: “TXT PLS”/”HNDI PA”/”AYAW NA”
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4. Sari-saring praktika ng SRI

MGSIMULA SA PNKAMALIIT nyong pitak, 50-500 metro kwadrado lng (50-100 lng, kng walang kompost). Alamin muna mga problema sa SRI bago sumubok sa malaki.

1-2 buwan bago mgtanim, humingi/mg-ipon ng DAYAMI & SARI-SARING ORGANIKONG MATERYAL (DAHON,TAENG HAYOP, atbp), ikalat sa bukid, at araruhin para mabulok.

Pwde rng itambak mga bubulukin sa isang imbakan n may bubong at di nauulanan, para mailagay ang kmpost kng saan lng kailangan, hlimbawa, sa kama ng punla.

8-12 araw bago mgtanim, ibabad ang bnhi ng 24-48 oras at isabog sa kama nang MAS MADALANG SA NKAGAWIAN, para mas mdaling mghiwalay ang ugat ng mga punla.

Kng 2 dahon na ang punla (IDAD 8-12 ARAW), ilipat na ang mga ito; ang pglilipatang bukid ay HNDI DAPAT BAHA kundi MAPUTIK LNG, para madali itong markahan.

Ityempo ang pglilipat HABANG HNDI MAULAN. Gumawa ng kalaykay na may layong 25cm ang mga ngipin; mrkahan ang pglilipatang bukid ng mga kwadradong 25×25 cm.

Mgtanim ng ISANG PUNLA SA BAWAT KROSING ng mga kwdrado. Tiyaking ksama sa punla ang bahay-bnhi at putik sa ugat. Tpusin ang pgllipat sa loob ng 20 minuto.

Pgklipat, HWAG AGAD BAHAIN ANG BUKID, para di lumitaw ang kuhol. Gawing manaka-naka (INTERMITTENT) ang IRIGASYON; patuyuin 5-7 araw, bahain 2-3 araw.

MGLINIS MABUTI NG DAMO kada 7-10 araw, gamit ang kamay o rotary weeder. PAG MADAMO, MGLINIS AGAD!. Mglinis dn tuwing baha ang pitak at malambot ang lupa.

Ang weeder ay parang munting pison na itnutulak sa pgitan ng mga puno. May mga ngipin ang 2 o 3 gulong nito, para matumba ang damo at mabungkal ang lupa.

Mganda ang rsulta ng SRI kng 20 suwi (o sobra pa) ang namumunga sa bawat puno; bawat suwi ay may 100 butil (o sobra pa) = mahigit 2,000 butil kada puno.

Pwdeng hndi muna gawin ang hndi pa kayang hakbang (halimbawa ang kontrol sa tubig o rotary weeding). Pero MAS MARAMI SA SRI ANG NASUSUNOD, MAS MAGANDA.

Ang pnakaimportante, SUBUKAN NGAYON DN SA MALIIT NA PITAK (100-500 metro kwadrado), para makita. KUNG IPGPAPALIBAN, WALANG MATUTUTUHAN. SUBUKAN AGAD!

Kung plano nyong subukan ang SRI, itxt po sa amin: Gagawin ko ang SRI sa buwan ng____, sa ____metro kwdradong pitak sa bayan ng______, probnsya ng______.

Pwde po idownload mula sa Internet ang libreng SRI video. I-search lang “World Bank SRI video”. Pwde rn namin ipadala DVD sa inyo, P100 ang bayad.

Sa susunod na serye, iisa-isahin ang mga HAKBANG na gagawin sa SRI, mula land prep hanggang sa pagkontrol ng damo.
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5. Mga hakbang na gagawin sa SRI

Tapos na po ang mga lessons, kailangang isa-praktika na ito, at magtanim ng palay gamit ang SRI. Maglaan na ng maliit na pitak pantesting (trial plot).

Tama lang ang 50-500 sqm pantesting. (Kung nag-aaral lumangoy, sa mababaw na ilog muna, hndi sa malalim na dagat.) Balikan natin ang mga praktika ng SRI:

LAND PREP: Lagyan ang pitak ng maraming kompost o vermicast. Kasindami, kng maaari, ng inani sa pitak. Hlimbawa, 5 bag ng kompost kung 5 kaban ang inani.

LAND PREP: Pag nasuyod na ang lupa, mag-ispray ng IMO para mamatay ang mga buto ng damo at lumaki nang mabilis ang mga tumubo na. Tapos, suyurin ulit.

PAGPUPUNLA: Gumamit ng punlaan na 50% lupa, 50% kompost. Salain ang binhi sa tubig-alat. Yung mga lumubog lang ang ipunla. Itapon yung lumutang.

PAGPUPUNLA: Maglaan ng 50 gramong binhi kada 100 sqm na pglilipatan. Ipunla nang madalang: 1 metro kwdradong seed bed o seed trays kada 50 gramong binhi.

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla pag may 2 dahon na (8-12 araw). Kumuha ng punla gamit ang pala/kutsara ng kantero. Kapalan ang lupa para di tamaan mga ugat.

PAGTATANIM: Ihiwalay ang 1 punla (hndi 2 o 3, kundi ISA), kasama pa ang palay, lupa at putik sa ugat, at itanim sa distasyang 25 x 25 cm (10 pulgada).

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla parang baby na inililipat galing duyan papnta sa kama: hndi sya naistorbo, nagising o nsaktan at walang sugat, pilay o bali.

KADA 7-10 ARAW: Bahain ang lupa (2-3 araw) para mbulok ang damo, patuyuin ng mas mtagal (5-7 araw), para habulin ng mga ugat ang tubig sa ilalim ng lupa.

DI DAPAT MKABUWELO ANG DAMO. Pag tuyo ang lupa, mglalabasan ang damo. Bunutin/bungkalin agad sila, gamit ang kamay o weeder. Pgkatapos, magspray ng IMO.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol iba pang BENEPISYO SA MAGSASAKA ng System of Rice Intensification (SRI), bukod sa mataas na ani.
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6. Mga benepisyo sa magsasaka

Alam na po natin na maitataas ng SRI ang ani sa palay. Noong Nobyembre 2011, ang pnkmataas na ani sa palay sa buong mundo ay naitala ng SRI sa India.

Matipid ang SRI sa binhi. Ang kailangan lng ay 5 kilong binhi kada ektarya, di tulad sa ibang sistemang gumagamit ng 20 kilo, 40, o sobra pa kada ektarya.

Matipid ang SRI sa tubig, Sa karanasan, 40-50% ng tubig ang matitipid, dahil sa SRI, hindi binabaha ng tuluy-tuloy ang bukid kundi pinatutuyo rin.

Matipid ang SRI sa abono dahil sa SRI, ang lupa ay pinatataba gamit ang mga binulok na organikong materyal (kompost), hindi ang komersiyal na abono.

Sa SRI, maaring mas maraming trabaho sa simula. Pero pag kabisado na ang sistema, menos trabaho rin sa SRI, ayon sa matagal ng gumagamit nito.

Ang mga puno ng palay na laking-SRI ay matitibay. Ang mga ugat ay malago at malalim. Kayat mas kaunti ang pnsala sa palay dulot ng bagyo, baha o tagtuyot.

Mas kaunti ang methane na sumisingaw sa bukid na hindi nkababad sa tubig ng tuluy-tuloy (tulad ng itinuturo sa SRI). Ang methane ay isang greenhouse gas.

Dahil mas kaunting methane ang nalilikha kung SRI ang gamit, ang SRI ay mkkatulong maiwasan ang pagbabago sa klima at pag-init ng mundo (global warming).

Ang SRI ay hndi binhi/variety, kundi paraan ng pg-aalaga kayat mas marami kang pgpipiliang binhi: malagkit, mabango, inbred,hybrid,fancy, may kulay, atbp.

Ang susunod na serye ay ang PAGGAWA NG KOMPOST mula sa organikong materyal. Kompost ang ginagamit sa SRI para tumaba nang husto ang lupa.
./sri.benefits.msg/

7. Gumawa ng kompost

GUMAWA NG KOMPOST (binulok na organikong materyal): Ito’y mayaman sa mga organismo sa lupa at mga itlog nila. Sila ang nagbibigay ng sustansya sa halaman.

Mag-ipon ng dayami (huwag sunugin!); haluan ng dahon, kusot, seaweeds (maganda!), tae ng hayop, at iba png organikong materyal. Takpan at hayaang mabulok.

Diligin ng regular. Ilang buwan lng, may kmpost k na. Kng sa bukid msmo bbulukin ang orgnikong materyal, ikalat ito 1 buwan bgo mgpunla, para mbulok muna.

GAANO KARAMI? Timbangin lahat ng inalis sa bukid (hal. 2000 kg palay + 500 kg gulay). Gnito karami dn, kng pwde, ang ilagay na kmpost (sa hal. 2,500 kg).

Sa abonong kemikal, may overdose; sa kmpost, wala. Mas marami, mas mganda. Kng kulang sa kmpost, liitan ang trial. Kng walang kmpost, kahit 50-100sqm lng.

Ang pnakamagandang pataba sa lahat ay ang dumi ng bulate (vermicast). Ito’y mayaman sa mabubuting mikrobyo, NPK, at micronutrients na maganda sa halaman.

Kng bibili dn lng ng abono, vermicast ang bilhin. Mas mbuti, mg-aral ng vermiculture, para mkagawa ng sariling vermicast. Huwag haluan ng abonong kemikal.

Sa susunod na serye, ipaliliwanag namin kung bakit mas maganda ang KOMPOST kaysa ABONONG KEMIKAL, at kung bakit hndi dapat paghaluin ang dalawa.
./sri.kompost.msg/

8. Ang diperensya ng kompost sa abonong kemikal

Ang diperensya ng KOMPOST sa ABONONG KEMIKAL: UNA, ang kompost ay maaring gawin ng magsasaka; ang abonong kemikal ay bibilhin (o uutangin) pa;

IKALAWA, habang tumatagal, tumataba at gumaganda ang lupa sa kompost; umaasim at nasisira ang lupa sa abonong kemikal;

IKATLO, ang mga tanim na pinalaki sa kompost ay puno ng sustansya; ang pinalaki sa kemikal ay kulang na sa sustansiya, may dala pang sakit.

Ang KOMPOST ay tinatawag ding ORGANIC FERTILIZER. Kahit kulang sa kompost, huwag itong haluan ng abonong kemikal. Masasayang ang ating kompost!

Masustansya ang kompost dahil sa dami ng dala nitong mga organismo sa lupa at itlog nila: mga mikrobyo, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, amag, lumot, lebadura,

kutong-lupa, hanip, alupihan, palasingsingan, langgam, anay, bulate, atbp. Pgkain nila ang organikong materyal, lason sa kanila ang abonong kmikal.

Hndi lang NPK at iba pang sustansya at micronutrients ang ibinibigay ng kompost. Ibabalik din nito sa lupa ang mga organismong pinatay ng abonong kemikal.

Masama ang abonong kemikal (purong NPK) sa mga organismong ito, kayat huwag haluan ng abonong kemikal ang kompost.

Pag hinaluan ng kemikal ang kompost, ang mga dala-dala nitong organismo at itlog nila ay malalason at mamamatay. HUWAG HALUAN NG KEMIKAL ANG KOMPOST!

CONGRATULATIONS! Tapos na po ang SRI lessons natin. Ang susunod na serye ay ang KOREAN NATURAL FARMING SYSTEM, mga pndilig sa bukid na mgagawa sa bahay.

Sa susunod n serye, ang una sa KNFS, ituturo kng PAANO MAGPARAMI NG INDIGENOUS MICROORGANISMS (IMO), mga katutubong mkrobyo sa lupa na mganda sa halaman.
./sri.komp_vs_npk.msg/

9. Magparami ng indigenous microorganisms (IMO)

MAGPARAMI NG INDIGENOUS MICROORGANISMS (IMO): Magsaing sa palayok ng 1-kilo bigas. Palamigin. Takpan ang bibig ng palayok ng tela/papel.

Talian ng goma, para hndi pasukin ng insekto. Ipwesto ang palayok sa mga nabubulok na dahon sa lilim ng mga puno o kawayanan (d best sa gubat).

Pagkaraan ng 3 araw, kung marami nang puting amag sa kanin, iuwi ang palayok. Haluan ng 1-kilo pulot o pulang asukal (walang halong tubig).

Takpan ng bagong tela/papel, talian ulit ng goma. Huwag higpitan ang takip, para mkasingaw! Itabi ng 7 araw sa madilim at malamig na lugar para maburo

(fermentation, tulad ng paggawa ng suka) hanggang mgmukhang putik. Ito ang IMO. Para gamitin, magtimpla ng 2 kutsara nito kada litro ng tubig.

I-spray ito sa kompost, para mas mbilis mabulok; sa kulungan ng manok at baboy, para mwala ang amoy ng dumi; foliar fertlizer sa palay at iba png halaman.

Pwde ring pangkntrol sa peste/sakit; ispray sa na-weeder na damo,para mabulok agad ito; sa kuhol, para lumambot ang kanilang shells.

Maraming klase ng IMO, kung papalitan ang kanin ng ibang lahok: kung mga lamang-isda, magiging FAA (fish amino acid), na mayaman sa nitroheno.

Kung mga prutas (puwedeng sobra sa hinog, hwag lng bulok), magiging FFJ (fermented fruit juice), na pmpatamis sa namumunga.

Kung talbos ng kngkong, kamote o alugbati o katawan ng saging na saba, magiging fermented plant juice (FPJ), na nagpapabilis sa paglaki ng mga halaman.

Ang susunod na serye: FISH AMINO ACID (FAA), para sa dagdag na nitroheno.
./sri.imo.msg/

10. Gumawa ng Fish Amino Acid (FAA)

Ang Fish Amino Acid (FAA) ay ginagamit na pamparami ng nitroheno sa lupa. Maaari itong i-spray o idilig sa halaman, sa kompost, at sa lupa.

Mag-ipon ng parte isda (tinik, bituka, hasang at balat) o suso. Timbangin. Ilagay sa banga o timba. Haluan ng kasimbigat na pulot o pulang asukal.

Takpan ang lalagyan at talian. Ilagay sa malamig/madilim na lugar. Hayaang maburo ng 10 araw. Ang makukuhang katas ay ang Fish Amino Acid (FAA).

Para gamitin, ihalo ang 2 kutsara ng FAA sa 1 litrong tubig. I-spray o idilig sa halaman, kompost, at lupa. Magbibigay ito ng nitroheno sa halaman.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa FERMENTED PLANT JUICE (FPJ), na tumutulong sa photosynthesis at para lumaki nang mas mabilis ang halaman
./sri.faa.msg/

11. Gumawa ng Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ)

Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ): mas mabilis dumami ang IMO, mas mabilis lumaki ang halaman, at nagiging mas berde ang mga dahon (mabuti sa photosynthesis).

Kumuha: 2 kilong talbos ng kamote, kangkong o alugbati, labong, o dumalagang saba. Tadtarin. Haluan ng 1 kilong pulang asukal. Iwan sa palayok ng 1 araw.

Takpan ng malinis na papel at talian. Matapos maburo ng 7 araw, pwde nang gamitin ang FPJ, 2 kutsara ng katas sa 1 litrong tubig, pndilig sa lupa at dahon.

Ang FPJ ay mayaman sa growth hormones mula sa halamang mabilis lumaki. Nakakatulong ito sa mabilis na paglago ng halaman. Nakapagpaparami din ito ng IMO.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa FERMENTED FRUIT JUICE (FFJ), na ginagamit pampatamis ng mga bunga.
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12. Gumawa ng Fermented Fruit Juice (FPJ)

Ang Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ) ay nagbibigay ng dagdag na potassium sa halaman at ginagamit na pampatamis sa prutas ng mga bungang-kahoy.

Kumuha ng 1 kilong hinog na prutas (puwera balat at buto). Puwede ang mangga, saging, papaya, abokado, o magulang na kalabasa.

Talupan, tadtarin, at ilagay sa banga. Huwag gumamit ng plastik o aluminum. Haluan ng 1 kilong pulot o pulang asukal.

Takpan ng malinis na tela o papel. Talian. Ilagay sa malamig/madilim na lugar. Hayaang maburo ng 7 araw. Ang makukuhang katas ay ang Fermented Fruit Juice.

Magtimpla ng pandilig: ihalo ang 2 kutsarang FFJ sa 1 litrong tubig. Ipandilig sa mga dahon at ugat. Kung malinis ang pagkakagawa, puwede ring inumin.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa ORIENTAL HERBAL NUTRIENTS (OHN), na ginagamit na pampalusog at pangkontra sa sari-saring sakit.
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13. Gumawa ng Oriental Herbal Nutrient (OHN)

OHN: Magtadtad ng 5 kg luya o bawang. Ilagay sa garapon. Lagyan ng beer hanggang sa 1/3 ng garapon. Pagkaraan ng 12 oras, maglagay ng 1 kg pulang asukal.

Hayaang maburo ng 4-5 araw. Punuin ang garapon ng gin hanggang leeg. Tkpan at talian. Mghintay ng 10 araw. Kumuha ng sabaw na kasindami ng nilagay na gin.

Gawin ng 5 beses ang pglalagay ng gin / pgkuha ng sabaw. Sa ika-4 at ika-5 ulit, samahan ang gin ng dnikdik na sili, panyawan (mkabuhay), at

bunga ng neem. para tumapang ang timpla ng OHN. Para magtimpla ng pandilig: ihalo ang 2 kutsara ng OHN sa 1 litrong tubig.

Pwdeng ipandilig ang tinimpla sa lupa at dahon ng halaman, kasama ang IMO, FPJ at FFJ, kada linggo, pag nanghihina ang tanim, o pag mamumulaklak na ito.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa PAGGAWA NG CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, na ginagamit pampabulaklak, at CALCIUM, na ginagamit naman pampatatag sa bulaklak.
./sri.ohn.msg/

14. Gumawa ng Calcium at Calcium Phosphate

Ang CALCIUM PHOSPHATE ay ginagamit pampabulaklak. Magpakulo sa tubig ng 2 kilong buto ng hayop hanggang sa maalis ang laman at taba. Patuyuin pagkatapos.

Iihaw ang buto hanggang sa mag-kulay uling. Palamigin pagkatapos.

Ilagay sa banga o timba. Lagyan ng 5 galon na sukang natural (galing sa niyog, tubo, saging, sasa, atbp.), hindi synthetic. Takpan at itabi ng 30 araw.

Timpla: ihalo ang 2 kutsarang katas sa 1 litrong tubig. Idilig sa halaman, lupa at kompost.

Kung ang CALCIUM PHOSPHATE ay pampabulaklak, ang CALCIUM naman ay pmpatatag sa mga bulaklak ng halaman. Ganito gumawa ng CALCIUM na png-ispray o pandilig:

Magprito ng 2 kilong balat ng itlog hanggang mangitim. Palamigin. Ilagay sa banga o timba. Dagdagan ng 5 galon na sukang niyog (walang kulay).

Takpan. Itabi ng 20 araw. Timpla: ihalo ang 2 kutsarang katas sa 1 litrong tubig. Idilig o iispray sa halaman, lupa at kompost.

Sa susunod na serye, malalaman kung kailan ginagamit ang IMO, FPJ, OHN, FAA, calcium at calcium phosphate ang iba pang lahok ng NFS.
./sri.calcium.msg/

15. Kailan ginagamit ang iba’t ibang lahok ng NFS

Bawat halaman ay dumadaan sa paglaki (growth stage) at pamumunga (reproductive stage). Sa pagitan ay ang changeover period, pag malapit nang mamumulaklak.

Sa paglaki, magspray kada linggo ng IMO, FPJ, OHN at FAA. Kung mukhang nasobrahan sa nitroheno ang halaman, magspray ng calcium phosphate.

Sa pagitan, magspray kada linggo ng IMO, FPJ, OHN, calcium phosphate at calcium. Kung mabagal ang paglaki, magspray ng FAA.

Sa pagitan, pinakaimportanteng sustansiya ang calcium phosphate (calphos) para sa pamumulaklak at ang calcium para maging prutas ang bulaklak.

Sa pamumunga, magspray kada linggo ng IMO, FPJ, OHN, calphos at calcium. Mgspray din ng FFJ para tumamis ang mga bunga at ng FAA kung mabagal ang paglaki.

Habang gumaganda at tumataba ang lupa, maaaring mas madalang na ang pagspray ng mga ito.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SERUM (LAS), na ginagamit pangkontra sa mga sakit na galing sa amag at virus.
./sri.nfs_sked.msg/

16. Gumawa ng Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum (LAS)

Ang LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SERUM (LAS) ay ginagamit pangkontra sa sakit na galing sa amag at virus.

Ipunin ang pinaghugasan ng bigas (na puno ng mikrobyo) sa isang timba o banga.

Paabutin sa 7” pulgada ang taas ng pinaghugasang tubig. Itabi ang banga sa malamig/madilim na lugar.

Pagkatapos ng 7 araw, alisin ang lumutang na latak. Itira lang ang tubig.

Ilipat ang tubig sa isa pang lalagyan. Haluan ng gatas, na 10 ulit ang dami kaysa tubig.

Takpan ng malinis na papel. Talian. Pagkatapos ng 7 araw, lulutang ang taba (mula sa gatas) at magkukulay-dilaw ang tubig.

Kunin ang dilaw na tubig. Haluan ito ng kasindaming pulang asukal. Itabi ng 7 araw sa malamig/madilim na lugar. Dito makukuha ang LAS.

Timpla: ihalo ang 2 kutsara ng LAS sa 1 litrong tubig. Pwdeng ipainom sa hayop, iispray sa kulungan para maalis ang amoy, o idilig sa halaman at sa kmpost.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa CARBONIZED RICE HULL(CRH) o INULING NA IPA, pandagdag ng micronutrients at pampaganda sa istruktura ng lupa.
./sri.las.msg/

17. Gumawa ng Carbonized Rice Hull (CRH) o Inuling na Ipa

Ang CARBONIZED RICE HULL (CRH) o INULING NA IPA ay nagdadagdag ng micronutrients at nagpapaganda sa istruktura ng lupa. Tulad ito ng paggawa ng uling.

Gumawa ng CARBONIZER mula sa karaniwang lata ng gaas o biscuit (18 liters), pwedeng kwadrado (23 x 23 x 34 cm) o bilog. Alisin ang ibabaw (top) ng lata.

Sa ilalim ng lata, gumawa ng bilog na butas, 10 cm ang lapad (diameter). Sa paligid ng lata, gumawa ng maraming mliliit na butas (na hndi kasya ang ipa).

Gawing 2.5 cm ang distansya ng mga butas sa isa’t isa, o 500 butas lahat sa paligit ng lata. Ang mga butas na ito’y dadaanan ng hangin (hindi ng ipa).

Gumupit ng #24 GI sheet na 31.4 cm ang lapad at 2 meters ang haba. Irolyo ito nang pahaba para magkorteng tubo na 10 cm ang lapad at 2 metro ang haba.

Talian ng mga alambre ang tubo ng yero para hindi ito bumuka. Isusuot ang tubong ito sa 10-cm na butas sa lata, para makalabas ang usok ng pag-uuling.

Tiyaking 5-8 cm lang ng tsimineya (mahabang tubo) ang nakasuot sa lata, at mahigpit ang pagkakasuot nito sa butas para hindi ito dumausdos pababa.

Sa patag na sahig na lupa o semento, magsimula ng apoy mula sa tuyong kahoy o bao. Ipatong ang carbonizer sa apoy. Magtambak ng ipa sa ibabaw ng lata.

Tambakan ng ipa ang lata hanggang sa matakpan ito nang husto. Pwedeng magtambak ng hanggang sa 50 sako ng ipa. Ang usok ay dapat lumabas sa tsimineya.

Kung malakas ang hangin, lagyan ng mas maraming ipa ang tinatamaan ng hangin dahil mas mabilis magiging uling ang parteng ito.

Tandaan: dapat mamatay ang apoy, para mainit na baga lang ang matira. Kung apoy at hindi baga ang mananaig sa loob, ang ipa’y magiging abo, hindi uling.

Yung mga ipa sa ilalim ng tambak ang pinakahuling magiging uling. Palahin ang mga ito sa tuwi-tuwina at ilagay sa bandang itaas ng tambak.

Magtakip ng panyo sa ilong at bibig habang gumagawa ng CRH, dahil hindi maganda sa kalusugan kung tuluy-tuloy na lumalanghap ng usok nito.

Kung naging uling na ang 90% ng ipa, alisin na ang carbonizer at nagbabagang kahoy/bao sa gitna. Iwasang sumiklab ang apoy para hindi maging abo ang ipa.

Ayusin ang tambak ng 90% uling at 10% ipa para magkorteng bundok ulit at magluto ang natitirang ipa hanggang maging uling din.

Wisikan ng tubig ang CRH para unti-unting mamatay ang mga baga, bumaba ang temperatura nito, tumigil na ang pagluluto, at hindi maging abo ang uling.

Hintaying bumalik ang temperatura ng tambak sa normal at matuyo ang idinilig na tubig, bago gamitin ang CRH o ilagay ito sa mga sako.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa paggawa ng BOKASHI, isang klase ng organikong pataba na ginagamit ng maraming magsasaka sa Japan.
./sri.crh.msg/

18. Gumawa ng Bokashi

Gumawa ng BOKASHI, isang magandang klase ng organikong pataba na unang ginamit sa Japan. Ang prosesong ginagamit ay pagbuburo (tulad ng paggawa ng suka).

Materyales para sa paggawa ng 30 sakong BOKASHI (pwede sa 1 ektarya): 12 sako, tuyong dumi ng hayop; 10 sako, inuling na ipa (CRH); 8 sako, matabang lupa;

Karagdagang materyales: 4 sako, darak; 4 kilo, pulang asukal o pulot; 3.5 litro, tuba; .15 litro (16 kutsara), FPJ o FAA; .15 litro (16 kutsara), IMO.

Pumili ng nasisilungang lugar na di binabaha kung umuulan. Maglagay ng bubong at kanal sa paligid, kung kailangan. Mas mabuti kung sementado ang sahig.

Mas mabuti rin kung ang lugar ay malapit sa bahay, para madaling bantayan, at di mapuntahan ng mga hayop. Pgsama-samahin lahat ng materyales. Haluin ito.

Habang hinahalo, diligan ng kaunting tubig na may halong tuba. Kung may tubig na tumulo pag piniga ang halo, sobra na ang tubig. Itigil na ang pagdidilig.

Haluing mabuti. Palahin ang ilalim at ibunton sa tuktok ng tambak, para magkorteng bundok ito. Takpan ng sako. Haluin ang tambak araw-araw.

Sa unang 7 araw, kung hndi matiis ang init ng tambak pag ipinasok ang kamay dito, haluin nang 2 ulit sa isang araw, para mabawasan ang init ng tambak.

Sa ika-7 araw, diligan ang tambak para mabasa ulit ito. Titigil ang proseso ng pgbuburo kng kulang sa tubig. Pero masisira ang bokashi kung sobrang tubig.

Sa ika 8-14 araw, kung di na mainit sa kamay ang tambak, hndi na ito kailangang haluin. Takpan na lang ito habang hinihintay na matapos ang pagbuburo.

Mtapos ang 14 araw, pwde nang gmitin ang bokashi. Haluang muli ng kasindaming lupa, bago gamitin sa bukid. Organikong pataba ito, kayat walang overdose.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa paggawa ng ORGANIC PESTICIDES para makontrol ang mga peste sa halaman.
./sri.bokashi.msg/

19. Gumawa ng organic pesticides

Ang mga sumusunod na ORGANIC PESTICIDES ay ginagamit ng mga trainers namin. Maaaring ipalit ang ibang sangkap, depende sa makukuhang lokal na materyal.

Ang mga organic spray ay madalas binubuo ng dalawang bahagi: a) ang mga pinagmumulan ng aktibong sangkap, at ang likidong pantunaw sa aktibong sangkap.

Mga karaniwang pnagmumulan ng aktibong sangkap: siling labuyo; tubli; dahon ng tabako, neem, kakawate; katawan ng makabuhay; laman ng nami; bawang; atbp.

Mga karaniwang pantunaw sa aktibong sangkap: OHN, alcohol, langis, mantika, tubig na may sabon, o iba pang likido na makatutunaw sa aktibong sangkap.

ORGANIC FOLIAR PESTICIDE: Mag-ipon sa 1 sako ng 3-4 kilo ng tae ng kambing, at tig-1 kilo ng dahon ng kakawate, dahon ng neem, at katawan ng makabuhay.

Ibabad ang sako ng mga sangkap sa 1 dram ng tubig. Pagkatapos ng 3 araw, pwde nang ispray ang tubig sa dram sa mga parteng apektado ng peste.

ORGANIC SPRAY KONTRA TUNGRO: Magdikdik hanggang maging pino ng 4 na bilog ng bawang at 4 na bilog ng sibuyas habang ihinahalo ang 4 na kutsarang mantika.

Hndi lulutuin ang lahok. Pag pinung-pino na, ihalo sa 16 litrong tubig. Ispray sa parteng apektado ng tungro.

ORGANIC SPRAY KONTRA ATANGYA. Mag-ipon ng dahon ng tabako, bunga ng siling labuyo, at dinikdik na katawan ng makabuhay (isang baging).

Ibabad muna ang ugat ng tubli ng 7 oras sa putik, bago gamitin, para lumambot ito at maglabas ng katas.

Ibabad ang mga pinagsama-samang sangkap ng 24 oras sa 16 litro ng tubig. Ispray ang pinagbabarang tubig sa mga atangya.

Sa mga sakit na dala ng FUNGUS (tulad ng leafblight), pwdeng gamiting pang-ispray ang IMO at ang organic spray kontra tungro.

CONGRATULATIONS! Natapos nyo na ang mga serye ng SRI at KNFS, na tinatawag ding ORGANIC SRI. Isa na lng ang kailangan para mkumpleto ang inyong pag-aaral.

Ang huling parte ng inyong pag-aaral ay ang praktikum: subukan ang SRI sa isang trial plot. Kung ito ang unang subok nyo, mgtesting muna sa 100-500 sqm.

Sa inyong PRAKTIKUM, patuloy po kaming mgbibigay ng payo sa txt. Pwde pong malaman kung anong buwan nyo planong subukan ang SRI?
./sri.org_pest.msg/

20. Praktikum: step by step

Tapos na po ang mga lessons, kailangang isa-praktika na ito, at magtanim ng palay gamit ang SRI. Maglaan na ng maliit na pitak pantesting (trial plot).

Tama lang ang 50-500 sqm pantesting. (Kung nag-aaral lumangoy, sa mababaw na ilog muna, hndi sa malalim na dagat.) Balikan natin ang mga praktika ng SRI:

LAND PREP: Lagyan ang pitak ng maraming kompost o vermicast. Kasindami, kng maaari, ng inani sa pitak. Hlimbawa, 5 bag ng kompost kung 5 kaban ang inani.

LAND PREP: Pag nasuyod na ang lupa, mag-ispray ng IMO para mamatay ang mga buto ng damo at lumaki nang mabilis ang mga tumubo na. Tapos, suyurin ulit.

PAGPUPUNLA: Gumamit ng punlaan na 50% lupa, 50% kompost. Salain ang binhi sa tubig-alat. Yung mga lumubog lang ang ipunla. Itapon yung lumutang.

PAGPUPUNLA: Maglaan ng 50 gramong binhi kada 100 sqm na pglilipatan. Ipunla nang madalang: 1 metro kwdradong seed bed o seed trays kada 50 gramong binhi.

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla pag may 2 dahon na (8-12 araw). Kumuha ng punla gamit ang pala/kutsara ng kantero. Kapalan ang lupa para di tamaan mga ugat.

PAGTATANIM: Ihiwalay ang 1 punla (hndi 2 o 3, kundi ISA), kasama pa ang palay, lupa at putik sa ugat, at itanim sa distasyang 25 x 25 cm (10 pulgada).

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla parang baby na inililipat galing duyan papnta sa kama: hndi sya naistorbo, nagising o nsaktan at walang sugat, pilay o bali.

KADA 7-10 ARAW: Bahain ang lupa (2-3 araw) para mbulok ang damo, patuyuin ng mas mtagal (5-7 araw), para habulin ng mga ugat ang tubig sa ilalim ng lupa.

DI DAPAT MKABUWELO ANG DAMO. Pag tuyo ang lupa, mglalabasan ang damo. Bunutin/bungkalin agad sila, gamit ang kamay o weeder. Pgkatapos, magspray ng IMO.

Kung gsto ng patuloy naming payo at teknikal na suporta, itext sa amin ang petsa ng pagpupunla nyo para sa SRI trial. Mgtxt kng may problema. Good luck!
./sri.praktikum.msg/

Philippine SRI map: where are the SRI trainers, farm trials and trainings conducted so far

I have not been very active in posting messages lately because a particular advocacy has kept me really busy.

I coordinate SRI Pilipinas a national network of farmers and organic farming advocates that promote the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). I’ve made a few previous posts about this method, including the Nov. 2011 news that five SRI farmers in India have broken the world record in rice yield previously held by world-famous Prof. Yuan Long-ping, inventor of hybrid rice.

I am posting here two maps — 1) Luzon, and 2) Visayas and Mindanao — showing the areas where we have SRI trainers (who can conduct one-day trainings for free), where we have conducted one-day SRI trainings (almost 130 throughout the country so far), and where farmers have conducted SRI trials, as far as we know.

The maps may not show any place marker at first (teardrop-shaped icons) at first, because loading them takes time, especially over slow connections. Be patient. The man/woman icons stand for locations where we have SRI trainers.

The Luzon SRI map:

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=217660476975716136489.0004bfc0fb7925a183aed&ie=UTF8&t=m&ll=14.186057,121.52486&spn=8.393733,5.322091&output=embed
View SRI Pilipinas (Luzon) Trainers, Trials and Trainings in a larger map

 

The Visayas/Mindanao SRI map:

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=217660476975716136489.0004c186951922be416d5&ie=UTF8&t=m&ll=9.283828,122.552533&spn=6.462083,7.511902&output=embed
View SRI Pilipinas (Visayas & Mindanao) Trainers, Trials and Trainings in a larger map

Eventually we hope to have at least one SRI trainer in every rice-producing province.

 

 

Chemical farming: inorganic or non-organic?

Why chemical farming should be called “non-organic” instead of “inorganic”

by Roberto Verzola

In farming, the use of agrochemicals which are harmful to human health, soil life, and the environment is often carelessly called inorganic farming.

Inorganic farming is a confusing term that the agrochemical industry uses to obfuscate issues against chemical farming. The more accurate term to describe chemical farming is non-organic farming.

In chemistry, organic simply means “contains carbon”. The study of chemistry is generally divided into two fields: organic chemistry, which studies substances that contain carbon, and inorganic chemistry, which studies substances that do not contain carbon.

The agrochemical industry clings to this distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry. Thus, they can say with a straight face that their agrochemicals, regardless of toxicity, are also “organic” as long as these contain carbon, and concede the term “inorganic” only to those agrochemicals without carbon.

The term “organic” in farming has a very different meaning from “organic” in chemistry. As defined by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), it is:

“a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.”

As the generally-accepted definition of organic farming in most parts of the world, this IFOAM definition is backed up by a long list of specific methods and practices which organic farmers and producers must observe, and which are subject to third-party inspection to ensure the quality of organic products.

Thus, when organic farming advocates debate with the agrochemical industry and their representatives in the academe and the government about “organic”, they are talking of completely different concepts, and it is easy for the media and the public to get confused.

The simplest way to clarify the real issue is to use two different terms when describing the opposite of organic. In chemistry, the opposite term is inorganic, for compounds that do not contain carbon. In farming, the opposite term is non-organic, for production systems that do not sustain the health of soils, ecosystems and people and are instead harmful to them.

It is to the interest of the agrochemical industry to confuse the issue and prevent the spread of organic farming. Thus, its representatives in the academe and the government can be expected to keep using the term inorganic only for chemical compounds that do not contain carbon, and to describe their carbon-containing agrochemicals as “organic”, which may be true in the chemistry sense but is completely untrue in the farming sense.

So the next time you encounter agrochemical defenders in a debate, make sure you use the term “non-organic” to describe chemical-based farming systems, and to leave the term “inorganic” for chemistry and the agrochemical industry. (March 26, 2011)

SRI Pilipinas Song

This song is dedicated to all farmers who have successfully tried the System of RIce Intensification (SRI) and are now trying to convert their neighbors to the method. Sing to the tune of “Magtanim Ay Di Biro”.

Awit ng SRI-Pilipinas

isinulat ni Roberto Verzola
(sa himig ng Magtanim Ay Di Biro)

Refrain:

Halina, halina, mga kaliyag,
tayo’y magsipag-palay lahat.
Magbago tayo ng kaisipan;
S-Rr-I ang subukan. (Ending: S-Rr-I Pilipinas)

Contra-refrain: (kasabay ng Refrain)
Sa organic SRI, kalusuga’y gaganda;
gastos ay bababa, kabuha-ya’y sasagana.
Sa ingles, “system of rice intensification” sya;
tawaging Sipag-Palay sa mga magsasaka.

I.

Magtanim ay masaya,
maghapong kumakanta.
Uupo kung pagod na;
tatayo kung puwede pa.

II.

Inaamag na ka-nin,
sa pulot patatamisin.
Pitong araw ang hintayin,
I.M.O. ay gagawin.

Refrain/Contra-refrain

III.

Ang dayami’y ipunin,
sa I.M.O. ay diligin.
‘Sang buwan lang na bulukin,
isabog na sa bukirin.

IV.

Gawin mong uling ang ipa,
sa kama’y pampataba.
Sampung kilo’y ipunla,
isang ektarya kasya na.

Refrain/Contra-refrain

V.

Sampung araw na idad,
punla ay ililipat.
Puno ay isa-isa;
layo’y sampung pulgada

VI.

Ang tanim huwag ibabad;
mabubulok ang ugat.
Tatlong araw basain;
isang linggong patuyuin.

Refrain/Contra-refrain

VII.

Sa tuwing sampung araw,
weeder ipambubungkal.
Ang damo’y matatanggal;
ang ugat, mahahanginan.

VIII.

Gawa natin ay may saysay,
Kung suwi’y kumakapal.
Kung ito’y doble bilang,
Puwede nang ipagyabang!

Refrain/Contra-refrain

IX.

Kung namumulaklak na,
tubig papasukin na.
Saya natin ay ikanta;
asahang ani’y maganda.

X.

Kung SRI kabisado na,
tanim gawing iba-iba.
Palay, gulay, puno pa,
Pagkain at pambenta.

Tapos.

Magtanim Ay Di Biro, English translation

Planting rice is not a joke

English translation by Roberto Verzola

Magtanim ay di biro

Traditional Filipino folksong

Refrain:

Come, dear fellow stewards of the earth,

stretching muscles is good for the health.

Let us pause so we can catch our breath,

and then tomorrow back to work!

Planting rice is not a joke;

the whole day you’re bent like an ox.

You cannot stand more than one bit;

till you’re done you cannot sit.

Oh, my arms, the feeling’s gone;

and my waist, its tired and sore.

My legs feel a thousand pricks,

soaked in water, six to six.

Mornings when I wake and rise;

I tell myself to think, be wise

and pray to find some land to till,

so I can have a tasty meal.

What a cruel destiny

to be born in poverty

If I don’t work with my two arms,

I won’t earn a single dime.

Refrain:

Halina, halina, mga kaliyag,

tayo’y magsipag-unat-unat.

Magpanibago tayo ng lakas,

para sa araw ng bukas.

Magtanim ay di biro;

maghapong nakayuko.

Di naman makatayo;

di naman makaupo.

Bisig ko’y namamanhid;

baywang ko’y nangangawit.

Binti ko’y namimintig,

sa pagkababad sa tubig.

Sa umaga pagkagising,

lahat ay iisipin.

Kung saan may patanim,

may masarap na pagkain.

Ay, pagkasawimpalad

ng inianak sa hirap.

Ang bisig kung di iunat,

di kumita ng pilak.

Organic rice from the rice terraces of Ifugao

In a meeting I attended last December 3, I heard Gov. Teddy Baguilat himself, governor of the province of Ifugao, describe his plans for organic production in Ifugao, home of the world-famous Ifugao rice terraces. Ifugao’s commitment to organic farming means four of the Philippines’ 89 provinces are now committed to organic production: Cebu, Ifugao, Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental.

There may even be more than four. Ifugao is hosting on January 29-31, 2009 in Lagawe, Ifugao, the 4th Regional Organic Congress in the Cordilleras. The Cordillera mountain ranges in Northern Luzon of the Philippines is home to the country’s Igorots. These hardy indigenous peoples built with their bare hands and a few hand tools thousands of kilometers of rice terraces, considered by many to be the eighth wonder of the world.

The Cordillera region includes Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province.

The Benguet vegetable industry is so heavily chemicalized that nearly 90% of all cancer cases in the Baguio General Hospital, a doctor there told me, came from the town of Buguias, where Benguet’s vegetable production is concentrated. The five other provinces, however, hold the promise of organic vegetables, rice and other products for their inhabitants and the surrounding regions.

In fact, Gov. Baguilat says, at least five towns of Ifugao have no market for agrochemicals, and are therefore already “organic by default”. These include the towns of Banaue, Mayaoyao, Hungduan, Upper Kiangan (Asipulo) and Hingyon. Ifugao is already exporting 10 tons of organic indigenous rice, the tinawon, to the U.S., he says. They can also supply organic coffee. The main problem, according to him, is linking producers to markets and third-party organic certification, and that’s what they are working on now.

If five of the six Cordillera provinces join the organic bandwagon, that could make it eight provinces out of 89 soon. We are moving forward!

Cebu province is going organic!

I just learned some good news from SRI-Pilipinas trainor Salvio Makinano, who is based in Central Visayas. Governor Gwen Garcia of Cebu wants her province to go organic. She apparently made her decision after visiting an organic farm in Borbon, Cebu and seeing how organic farming can be economically viable for the farmer, healthy for the consumer and friendly to the environment. Salvio, who conducts regular trainings on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Korean Nature Farming, biodynamic farming and other sustainable farming systems through the Visayas, heard it straight from the governor herself.

If Gov. Garcia formalizes her intention and it is adopted by the provincial government of Cebu, her island province will be following the pioneering lead of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental, whose governors (former Governor now Congressman George Arnaiz and Governor Joseph Marañon) signed a few years back a memorandum of agreement to turn the whole island of Negros into an organic island.

With three of the Philippines’ 89 provinces committing to go organic, and the Department of Agriculture publicly committing to convert 10% of the country’s ricelands to organic methods, we can see the balance of policy-making now starting to make a move towards the organic side.

Organic practitioners and advocates need to push even harder, and convince more municipal mayors and provincial governors to commit to the organic way.

A public commitment, backed up by strong legislative measures, is the first step. This should be followed by a clear budgetary commitments, that should go to an organic program ran by groups with proven track records in organic implementation.

With release by Secretary Arthur Yap of P20 million pesos for a pilot organic program in seven Luzon towns, the Department of Agriculture has taken the second step.

These recent developments inspires us to work even harder.

We look forward to the day when we can declare the entire Philippines an organic country, where organic methods are the default methods.

It may be unrealistic to expect the government to ban chemical fertilizers and pesticides. But a government that is truly serious about supporting organic agriculture should impose mandatory testing and labelling requirements on farmers and food producers who use non-organic inputs and sell non-organic products to the public. It is the logical legislative expression of the “polluter pays” principle. Such a measure will tilt the balance further in favor of organics, by reversing the bias of the economic system in favor of organics.

With the small steps being taken today by pioneering officials in local governments and national government agencies, the leap to become an organic nation is becoming a real possibility.

Promoting SRI among rice farmers

I had written earlier about the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), a new method of growing rice that reduces costs, raises yields and minimizes the use of poisons in the farm. The method is being promoted in the Philippines by an NGO consortium which I coordinate, SRI-Pilipinas, as well as by other groups advocating sustainable agriculture.

Last November 7, I was invited by Aga Milagroso to his farm in Malolos, Bulacan, about 1 hour by bus north of Manila, to meet his 50 visitors from Alaminos, Pangasinan, which is in turn about 6 hours by bus north of Manila. Aga’s visitors from Alaminos were farmers, including 37 who were attending the weekly trainings on SRI and organic farming that Aga was conducting in Alaminos on the request of its mayor, Hernani Braganza.

It was heart-warming to hear Aga’s guests from Alaminos as well as some local farmers who had joined the visit, express their curiosity and their intention to try SRI. The seeds SRI-Pilipinas had been patiently planting throughout the country were now starting to bear fruit.

We have been promoting SRI in the Philippines since 2002. Before that I had been promoting it publicly since 2000, after my wife Flor, who comes from a farming family, successfully tried the method for two seasons in her upland village of Bgy. Casispalan in Tagkauayan, Quezon.

When SRI-Pilipinas received some eight hundred thousand pesos from the Department of Agriculture to promote SRI, we finally got some resources to do a nationwide training program. With this modest amount we have been able to do a one-day SRI training in around 48 provinces so far. We hope to reach 50 provinces before the fund is used up.

Aga’s example shows our approach in promoting SRI. In November 2006, I had been interviewed SRI in a DZMM radio program for farmers, which airs Saturdays and Sundays, 4:30-6:00 am. I always give out my cellphone number during these interviews, so that interested farmers can contact me if they want an SRI workshop.

One of the hosts, Ka Ben Laurente, asked me on the air if I could conduct a workshop in his town in San Miguel, Bulacan. We quickly agreed on the date (Nov. 22) and Ka Ben invited interested listeners to join the workshop.

It was my wife, Flora, who went. I avoid conducting farmers’ trainings myself as much as possible, because I don’t have enough farming experience. I rely for farming expertise on Flora, who spent her childhood and growing up years in her father’s homestead in Tagkauayan, Quezon. Around 50 people came, including some local officials and agriculture technicians.

As usual, many were skeptical. In my own experience, out of every ten in the audience, 8 or 9 would raise all kinds of problems why the method won’t work. They can’t control the water, they can’t control the snails, the can’t control the weeds, etc. But usually, one or two would be enthusiastic about trying it. They would pester you with detailed questions, buy the primer or the training CD and want to start the trial immediately. These are the farmers we are looking for, the innovators, who will go out of their way to try a new method and see if it works. We have gone at great lengths to put into our primer every detail that farmers may need to improve their chances of succeeding in their first trial.

Aga Milagroso was one of those who had attended Flora’s workshop, and one of those who were truly curious and interested. He brought home a copy of the primer, tried SRI on his farm, and got encouraging results. He tried again the next season, drawing into the trial other members of the crop growers’ association of which he was president. Aga wanted to learn more and contacted SRI-Pilipinas. So we sent another trainor, Jun Garde, to teach his group other organic methods, like the use of indigenous microorganisms (IMO), bokasi (fermented rice bran), carbonized rice hull, and so on.

Today, barely two years after he first heard about SRI in a radio program, Aga is himself an increasingly active SRI trainor.

Passed on from one farmer to another, heard on an early morning radio program, read on a photocopied primer, seen from a training video that has itself passed from hand to hand. This is how SRI is spreading itself among Filipino farmers, throughout the Philippines.

We already have at least one SRI farmer in most rice-producing provinces, at the modest cost of some eight hundred thousand pesos. Our next goal is an SRI farmer-trainor in every rice-producing town. I am hopeful the Department of Agriculture will also support this phase of our efforts.

Philippine commitment to organic production strikes fear among chemical/GMO pushers

Secretary Arthur Yap of the Department of Agriculture announced on Nov. 5 his commitment to expand organic production in the Philippines, starting with 400,000 hectares of rice lands.

Five years ago, I led a 30-day hunger strike of the Philippine Greens and other organizations against Secretary Yap’s predecessor, DA Secretary Cito Lorenzo, to ask him to halt the approval of the commercialization of Bt corn in the Philippines. Lorenzo ignored us.

Today, I salute Secretary Yap for making this bold commitment, despite the fact that such decision is bound to incur the ire of the chemical fertilizer industry and GMO proponents in the Philippines.

If there is one word that strikes fear in the hearts of the chemical-GMO industry, it is the word “organic”. The “O” word to the chemical/GMO industry is like daylight to the vampire, or holy water to the devil.

Organic production and organic processing have an unequivocal meaning based on a set of standards carefully defined and regularly reviewed by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). These standards reflect a balance between the interests of producers and of consumers. No corporate lobby, not even governments, can bend these standards any which way they like.

Organic standards are very clear and uncompromising about their prohibition against synthetic fertilizers and genetically-modified products, such as the Bt corn whose commercialization in the Philippines Lorenzo approved in 2003. There can be no ifs or buts about it: anyone who wants to be organic has stop using chemicals and GMO.

Organic products are not only good for our health, they also reduce farmers’ costs and therefore improve their income. They are likewise good for the health of the farmers and their families, because they don’t have to be exposed to toxic chemicals anymore. Organic production is good for the environment, not only because we are reducing the volume of poisons we introduce into the soil and our surroundings, but also because we are reducing our consumption of fossil fuels (yes, fertilizers come from oil) and therefore reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change and sea level rise.

There is no real reason why organic products should be expensive.

A major reason they are expensive today is the limited supply. As we start to realize the 400,000-hectare target set by Secretary Yap for organic rice production, we can expect the price of organic rice to go down to nearly the same level as chemically-grown rice.

Another reason organic rice is expensive today is that that the government subsidizes rice farming with toxic chemicals, but not organic rice farming. This is about to change, as Secretary Yap’s organic rice program takes off.

The third reason organic products are expensive is that they unfairly shoulder the burden of product monitoring, testing and labelling. This creates an economic system with a built-in bias against organic production. If the government followed the fairer “polluter pays” principle, then the burden of product monitoring, testing and labelling should be borne by chemically-grown products, not organically-grown products. This will create an economic system which will make chemically-grown, poison-laden products more expensive and organic products cheaper. And this is what we all want.

I encourage Secretary Yap and the Department of Agriculture to learn more about organic production and processing standards. They will have to master the nuances of this industry, if they want to break into the vast international market for organic products. Too many bureaucrats and technicians within the DA still think that the use of “organic” fertilizers or, worse, “balanced” (50-50) fertilization will already make a farmer “organic”.

We will all have to do better than this, if we want to become “organic” in the same sense that the rest of the world understands it.

DA Secretary Yap commits to convert 400,000 hectares of ricelands to organic production

In a public press conference on November 5, Department of Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap committed to convert 400,000 hectares of ricelands in the Philippines — 10% of the total — to organic production. He also signed a memorandum of agreement with the Go Organic Movement to pilot the program in six cities/towns for P20 million.

This was a historic moment. No DA secretary in the past has ever dared to defy the chemical industry lobby. Secretary Yap deserves the public’s full support for this organic conversion program. Once realized, this will make the Philippines the leading producer of organic rice in Asia, and perhaps the world.

One of the Secretary’s commitment was to promote the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) among farmers. With this decision, the Philippines joins many other rice-producing countries who have already gone into SRI in a big way, including India, Indonesia, China, Cambodia, Nepal and so on.

I have explained in an earlier post how SRI can bring a whole range of benefits to farmers, their families, to consumers and to the environment.

Political economy of abundance

I have been studying in the past few months the subject of abundance.

My interest in this subject grew out of my interest in information, information technology and information economics. I think most of us who have not yet realized it ourselves can easily believe the claim that information goods have become easily accessible and abundant, especially to those who have Internet access. Abundance in the information economy comes from the diminishing cost of reproducing information, making it easy for anyone to share information with others. If you consider the vast and incredible collections of materials on the Internet, from Google to Wikipedia, from the websites to the blogs, from the various file, audio and video exchange sites to YouTube, I think you’d agree that one term which describes all these accurately is abundance.

After my semi-retirement from software, hardware and Internet work, I did volunteer work on environmental and agriculture issues. I worked with farmers groups. After nearly ten years of doing so, I realized that a unifying thread connects my experiences in the information sector, in nature and in agriculture. What is it? You guessed it, abundance.

Like the information sector, nature also teems with abundance. The reason is simple, every species is genetically programmed to reproduce its own kind. The reproductive urge built into every living organism is the source of abundance in nature and, by extension, in agriculture.

I have also been studying economics these past few months. One fundamental assumption in economics is scarcity. Economists define their jobs as the study of efficient options in the context of scarcity. This focus on scarcity has created a blind spot among economists. Many have missed, taken for granted, ignored or rejected abundance as an interesting field for study.

That’s the study I’m currently doing.

If you are interested in this subject, please download my paper Undermining Abundance, which will appear as a chapter in a book that will be released in the next few months by Zone Books, entitled Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Knowledge.

I’m working on another paper now, entitled “Studying Abundance”, which I will also release soon.

System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

A new method of growing rice is now spreading in many rice-producing countries. It is called the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). The method was initially developed in Madagascar by a Jesuit agriculturist, Fr. Henri de Laulanie and continues to be refined by thousands of researchers and farmers all over the world.

In the Philippines, the promotion of SRI is being undertaken by SRI-Pilipinas, a consorium of NGOs which I coordinate. We have already conducted one-day trainings in at least 47 provinces in the Philippines. Now, we want to do trainings in every rice-producing municipality in the country. We need at least P25,000 (around $500) per municipality, and hope to gather donations from Filipinos abroad who may want to sponsor a training in their municipality. If you are interested in donating, please contact me privately (rverzola@gn.apc.org).

SRI involves a few simple but major changes in farmers’ methods. Not expensive, but challenging because it involves a major change in mindset.

  • Farmers are used to transplanting 3-week old rice seedlings or older. Under SRI, 8- to 12-day old seedlings are transplanted.
  • Farmers are used to flooding their fields. Under SRI, anything longer than a 3-day flooding is avoided. Wetting the soil, or intermittent flooding and drying, is instead encouraged.
  • Farmers are used to planting distances of 15 cm or closer. Under SRI, planting distances start at 25 cm and may even be greater.
  • Farmers are used to planting a bunch of seedlings per hill. Under SRI, one seedling per hill is encouraged. At most two is allowed.
  • Farmers are used to chemical fertilizers. Under SRI, the use of organic matter is encouraged.
  • Farmers are used to herbicides. Under SRI, a mechanical weeder is used instead, not only to control weeds but also to aerate the soil.

These simple changes in practices result in a very different kind (“phenotype” is the technical term) of rice plant. The plants produce much more tillers — 20 upwards, instead of the usual 5-10 tillers per plant. The tillers produce the grain, and the more tillers, the more grain, the greater the harvest. The loss of yield from wider spacing is more than offset by the bigger gain in yield from the greater number of tillers and the greater number of grains per tiller.

For details, please download this file: System of Rice Intensification: Practices and Results in the Philippines.

The benefits are many. The increase in yield, coupled with reduced cost, means greater income for the farmer. The health benefits should not be underestimated. Agricultural chemicals poison the soil, the food that comes from it, the drinking water and the surrounding fields. The environmental benefits are also considerable. Poisons are minimized and can be avoided altogether, giving common farm organisms (like mudfish, snails, crabs, frogs, etc.) a chance to return to the farm. Less flooding means less anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, which means less methane generation and therefore less greenhouse gases. Methane is actually worse than carbon dioxide in its greenhouse effect.

A mindset change among our farmers is bound to generate many positive consequences down the road. To accomplish this, we need a lot of support.

Sustainability through permanent agriculture

How does one design a farm so that it is environmentally-friendly and economically viable as well?

To many Filipino farmers, this question has not even occurred. Most tenants and farm workers have little say in running the farms they work in, much less in redesigning them. Even farmer-owners often simply take the existing farm set-up as given, preoccupied as they are in the day-to-day problems of keeping their farms afloat.

Yet, a farm’s design is a key factor in its survival and sustainability. In poorly-designed farms, farmers will always feel as if every day were an uphill climb, because the poor design makes the farmer work against the natural flow of matter and energy in the farm. In well-designed farms, farming will feel like a downhill joyride, as the natural forces and components in the farm themselves do most of the work that the farmer normally shoulders.

A sustainable approach to farm design called permaculture, first developed in Australia, is now proving its worth under Philippine conditions. In permaculture (from permanent agriculture), the farmer carefully lays out a system of water containment and channels within the farm, so that water naturally flows slowly, by gravity, from one containment to the next. Then, the farmer gradually “assembles”, following certain principles and guidelines, an increasing variety of plants and animals. These are laid out in a way that each additional farm component performs one or more functions or provides matter or energy which, in a conventional farm, have to be provided by the farmers themselves. After many years, a well-designed permaculture farm will look like a lush forest of food and cash crops. And this forest will essentially maintain itself. Then, the farmers’ job will consist mainly of tending the “forest” and regularly harvesting its products.

Successful permaculture farms in the Philippines include the Center for Ecozoic Living and Learning (CELL) in Silang, Cavite and Cabiokid in Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. Permaculture practitioners and advocates have set up the Philippine Permaculture Association (PPA), which conducts regular trainings and supports those who want to try permaculture in their own farms.

Indigenous microorganisms (IMO)

A new concoction is becoming increasingly popular among farmers. Usually called indigenous microorganisms (IMO), this concoction has been successfully tried by government agriculturists, academic researchers and non-profit foundations alike. They have found it useful in removing bad odors from animal wastes, hastening composting, and contributing to crops’ general health.

To make your own IMO, follow these simple steps:

1. Cook a kilo of rice, preferably organic. After cooling, put the cooked rice in a wooden, earthen or ceramic container. Avoid plastic or aluminum.

2. Cover the mouth of the container completely with cloth or paper, fixed in place with a rubber band, to prevent water or small insects from getting in.

3. Put the covered container, protected from possible rain, under the trees, in a bamboo grove, a forest floor, or wherever a thick mat of leaves has formed. Leave it there for three days.

4. After whitish moldy filaments have formed, transfer the entire contents of the container to a larger glass or earthen jar and add one kilo of brown sugar or molasses, preferably organic.

5. Cover the jar with clean cloth or paper, fixed with a rubber band. Keep the jar in a dark, cool place. Let it ferment for seven days, until it appears muddy. This is your IMO concoction.

To use, mix two spoonfuls of the concoction with a liter of water. Spray the diluted solution around chicken coops and pig pens to remove unpleasant odors, on your compost pile to hasten decomposition, or on your crops to improve their general health by controlling pests and serving as foliar fertilizer.

By making their own IMO, farmers can free themselves from the need to buy inputs for their farms. By reducing their costs, using IMO keeps them away from debt and improves their income.

Truly, these tiny beneficial organisms are a farmer’s friend.