Mandatory labelling of chemically-grown/processed products will bring low-cost organic food

PROPOSED RESOLUTION ON FOOD LABELLING AT THE 10TH PHILIPPINE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE CONGRESS

RESOLVED, THAT the organic movement pursue as a long-term goal the reorientation of the country’s food labellling laws to base these on the “polluter pays” principle, whi ch says that the consequences of pollution must be paid by the polluters, not by their victims. This means that the burden of testing, inspection, certification and labelling should be borne not by the organic producers who are the victims of agrochemical pollution, but by the chemical producers who pollute our food, our farms, and the environment. Specifically, this means that mandatory labelling should be imposed not on organic products but on chemically-grown/processed products. This approach will completely reverse the economics of food production, because the cost of testing, inspection, certification and labelling will now be borne by chemically-produced, rather than organically-grown food. This will soon drive higher-cost chemically-grown food out of the market.

Some may dismiss this idea as an impossible dream. After all, no country today requires the mandatory labelling of chemically-grown/processed products. Indeed, if we don’t talk about our dreams, they will never happen. We need to talk about our dreams now, so that they will become reality in the future. [No country had banned incinerators before, but we dared to dream that it can happen, and we made the incinerator ban part of our laws. We can do the same thing with the mandatory labelling of chemically-grown/processed products.]

To move this dream closer to reality, this resolution also proposes an intermediate step, to set a precedent that will pave the way to our long-term goal of mandatory labelling of chemically-grown/processed products. This intermediate step is the mandatory labelling of genetically-modified products, which is already the norm in many countries of the world except those which are heavily influenced by the U.S., like the Philippines. A successful lobby for the mandatory labelling of genetically-modified products will set a compelling precedent for the next step: that chemically-grown foods, for precisely the same reasons, should also fall under mandatory labellling.

Then, we will have achieved a more favorable economic context which spares the organic producer from the costs and aggravations of a complicated mandatory labelling regime and consequently makes available for low-income consumers affordable and healthy organic food.

Resolution author:

Roberto Verzola

Coordinator, SRI Pilipinas

October 18, 2013

(Note: This copy contains minor improvements over my original hastily hand-written resolution I read during the Oct. 18 plenary session into the records of the 10th NOAC. It is my impression is that the plenary body accepted the resolution by acclamation. — Obet Verzola)

Napoles pork barrel scam: We’ve impeached a president and a chief justice; it’s time to impeach legislator-crooks

We have already impeached a president and a chief justice for graft and corruption. This has left an unforgettable mark in our history and the public’s mind. Today, no president or chief justice can violate our laws or constitution and still feel completely secure in their post. The precedents have been set.

It is clear from the ten billion-peso Napoles port barrel scam that certain legislators in Congress have perpetrated graft and corruption of the worst kind. Napoles had no power to do these things by herself. The masterminds of the scam are obviously powerful senators and congressmen who decide where and how their pork barrel funds will be spent.

The successful million people’s march will surely set off a debate about what concrete actions the movement should demand from the government. Some suggest the abolition of all pork barrel, others want to shift focus on the presidential pork barrel. The different suggestions all have their good supporting arguments.

Among all the various options, the impeachment of selected legislators holds special significance. Such impeachment will complete the expression of the power of the people to unseat corrupt public officials. The two previous impeachments had successfully unseated the chief executive, and the chief justice. If the impeachment of high-ranking legislators also succeeds, people power will have expressed its effectiveness over the three branches of government. It will be a victory of historic proportions.

This is the perfect time to teach all legislators a lesson. The public must insist that the worst of the corrupt legislators – who can surely be identified after an honest-to-goodness investigation of the scam – be impeached, as the first step in the criminal prosecution of the guilty. It is time to impeach the most corrupt of our legislators.

Impeaching some senators and congressmen may not discourage all public officials from stealing public funds, but it will leave a permanent mark in every politician’s psyche. Whether they are in the executive, judicial or legislative departments, they will realize that they are within reach of impeachment proceedings if public wrath against their corrupt practices reaches the boiling point.

A successful impeachment process need not stop there. Once the top crooks among senators and congressmen have been identified, criminal prosecution and subsequent jail terms can follow, if the movement manages to maintain its momentum. Pressure can then be exerted on both the executive and legislative branches to truly abolish the pork barrel system of personal allotments outside the collective budgeting process. The momentum can even carry over to other legislation essential for anti-graft and corruption campaings, like a Freedom of Information Act

At this historical juncture, the demand of the moment is to impeach legislator-crooks.

SRI success on first try: how a “weekend farmer” in Laur, Nueva Ecija got a 338-cavan/hectare rice yield

The results of a 2013 “backyard experiment” in a new rice-growing method by “weekend farmer” and physician Dr. Apolinar Tolentino Jr. has astounded his friends and colleagues.

From the control plot of 540 square meters using conventional methods, he got 12 cavans, or 220 cavans/hectare – quite high by Philippine standards. But from the experimental plot of 1,035 square meters using a new method called system of rice intensification (SRI), which he was trying for the very first time, he got 35 cavans, or 338 cavans/hectares – 54% higher than his control plot and more than four times the national average!

Successful physician, frustrated weekend farmer

Dr. Tolentino, whose specialty is family medicine, has been a medical officer of a government corporation for more than 20 years. He is married to another doctor, who enjoys a successful medical practice as pediatrician. Their children study in the best schools in the country.

Despite these marks of success, “Doc Joey” remains engaged in a search to improve income – his farm income, that is. In addition to his successful career as a physician, Doc Joey is also a “weekend farmer,” as he calls himself. He farms, he says, not only for himself and his family, but for all farmers in the country. If he can make his farm operation viable while keeping to “natural methods of farming”, then his approach might serve as a model for other farmers.

On weekends and some weekdays, Doc Joey’s son Percival Jerome (“PJ”) drives him from Quezon City to the six-hectare family farm in Laur, Nueva Ecija that his deceased mother and five other aunts and uncles inherited from their parents. Doc Joey took on the responsibility of managing the rice farm, with son PJ on his side, to try out various ideas that can make rice farming a viable operation.

In between his visits, his paternal cousin Benny Tolentino takes over and implements his “remote” instructions. Eventually, they managed to raise the farm’s yield from 60-80 to 100-120 cavans/hectare. The national average is only slightly below 80 cavans/hectare. Still, he was far from satisfied with the yields they were getting and the costs they were incurring. The margins were frustratingly low, he says.

“I won’t even factor in the cost of driving from Quezon City to Laur and back, or the time I spend managing the farm and travelling,” he adds.

A viable option emerges

Doc Joey’s search for viable farm options led him to the system of rice intensification (SRI).

SRI is a method of growing rice developed in the 1980s by Fr. Henri de Laulanié, a Jesuit priest stationed in Madagascar, a big island off the African east coast.

SRI went viral in the 2000s when Dr. Norman Uphoff, a Cornell University scientist studying irrigation systems, came across it, picked up the torch from de Laulanié, and started promoting SRI evaluations worldwide.

Before he did so, however, Uphoff spent years quietly evaluating the method. “For a long time,” Uphoff told a Filipino audience when he visited the country in 2002, “I couldn’t even mention SRI in my public talks, lest I associate Cornell’s name with what might turn out to be a false claim.”

But after three years of joint evaluations and demonstrations with Association Tefy Saina, the non-government organization which de Laulanié organized with local colleagues and left behind (he died in 1995), Uphoff was convinced that SRI benefits were real. He saw how smallholding farmers raised their yields from 2 to 8 tons/hectare just by changing the way they took care of their rice fields.

Having taught rural development for more than 30 years at Cornell, which hosts hundreds of foreign students a year in its agriculture program, Uphoff had a worldwide network of former students to tap. Also, Cornell received a steady stream of visitors engaged in agricultural and rural development. As director of the Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development (CIIFAD) from 1990 to 2005, he travelled abroad regularly and had the opportunity to visit many countries.

Doing so, he started a campaign of encouraging everyone he met, including his former students of course, to “evaluate SRI scientifically.” SRI’s critics characterized Uphoff’s efforts as “missionary zeal” to question his credibility. “He has become an SRI advocate,” they charged. But Uphoff responded that what he was advocating was “the evaluation of SRI within the scientific community.” If scientists and farmers were satisfied with the results, they could decide themselves what to do with their new knowledge.

The establishment strikes back

Uphoff’s detractors, some of them based at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), went so far as to label his reports on SRI as based on “unconfirmed field observations (UFOs)” in articles published in scientific journals – an ultimate insult to a scientist. Some wrote that the SRI results reported by Uphoff exceeded what they calculated to be the theoretical maximums based on their agronomic models, implying that the top yields with SRI methods must be false. “Perhaps it is their current theories that need revision,” Uphoff suggests. “By focusing on the top yields, they diverted attention from the large increases in average yield achieved with SRI management – increases which were well within any concept of ‘biological maximum yield’,” he adds.

This early, highly-publicized opposition to SRI by IRRI scientists could be a major reason for SRI’s relatively slow spread in the Philippines, where IRRI is based. Local agriculture experts and government agriculturists look up to IRRI and they echoed these early criticisms of IRRI scientists, though much of these criticisms later turned out to be unfounded.

Many of these early critics are now silent, but they’ve never published any retraction of their unfounded criticisms, nor apologies for their insulting labels. Even today, some government agriculturists, especially those who are not updated about recent research, still cite arguments echoing these early critics.

To review the state of SRI research in the Philippines and other countries, the Central Bicol State University for Agriculture (CBSUA) is hosting an SRI research roundtable and lecture series on June 4, 2013 at the CBSUA campus in Pili, Camarines Sur. With Dr. Lucy Fisher, CIIFAD staff and a colleague of Uphoff, as guest speaker, the occasion will provide SRI researchers from CBSUA, UP Los Banos, Central Luzon State University, Visayas State University and other schools the opportunity to share and discuss their results.

Doc Joey picked up bits and pieces of the SRI debates, as he browsed the Web and explored YouTube for information, reading all he could about SRI. But he was really after knowledge he could use in his farm.

Eventually he came across SRI Pilipinas, the local network that promotes SRI in the Philippines. This network of SRI trainers conducts free trainings and seminars to farmers’ groups and provides free text/SMS lessons as well as primers to individual farmers. It is launching a “friendly contest” in 2013 and 2014 among SRI adopters to see who can get the most benefits from these methods. Doc Joey attended one of its seminars.

Case for SRI now overwhelming

By this time, as Doc Joey realized at the seminar, the case for SRI has become overwhelming.

For one thing, it has been tried successfully in more than 50 countries. (SRI’s phenomenal spread – often without support from government or agriculture authorities – has so confounded the agriculture establishment that the Gates Foundation funded Wageningen University researchers to study SRI as a “socio-technical” phenomenon.)

In November 2011, five farmers in Bihar, India – all using SRI which they had learned three years earlier – had matched or exceeded the world record for palay (paddy rice) yield of scientist and hybrid rice developer Dr. Yuan Long-ping of China. The best of the five SRI farmers, Sumant Kumar, now holds the new world record: 20.03 tons/hectare (22.4 tons – 448 cavans – before drying). The average yield in the Philippines is less than 4 tons/hectare (80 cavans).

Then, in August 2012, Dr. Yang Saing Koma of Cambodia received the prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award, in large part because he convinced the Cambodian government to adopt SRI as an official program nationwide and helped it implement the program. As a result, Cambodia doubled its national rice production within eight years, from 3.82 million tons in 2002 to 7.97 million tons in 2010. Earlier, the Philippines had announced that they had signed a memorandum of agreement with the Cambodian government to import rice from Cambodia in the next two years.

Several Indian states have, for years, promoted SRI as part of the official government rice program, accounting for significant increases in their rice production. In the Nalanda district of the state of Bihar, where Sumant Kumar made his record-breaking harvest in 2011, 90% of farmers already use SRI. When India’s 2012 rice export statistics came in, they showed India’s rice exports jumping to 10.3 million tons, up from 4.8 million tons in 2011, thanks in part to this early focus on SRI. This doubling of exports has made India top rice exporter for 2012, ahead of Vietnam (7.7 million tons) and traditional leader Thailand (7.0 million tons).

Trying SRI for the first time

In the first cropping season of 2013, Doc Joey made up his mind to try SRI.

On his request, SRI Pilipinas assigned its Nueva Ecija-based trainer and Luzon coordinator, Venancio Garde Jr. of Gabaldon, to help him out. The two were distant relatives, it turned out.

With Jun Garde’s help, Doc Joey started his first SRI trial during the 2013 dry season, on a 45-meter x 23-meter plot. His Facebook entry called the 1,035 square-meter trial “a backyard experiment with lots of limitations.” A modest description of an experiment whose objective was “just to give my farmer-cousin a hands-on training in SRI and to find out if the technique will work in our rice farm.” He would have been satisfied with “anything above 150 cavans/hectare,” – roughly double the national average.

For seed, Doc Joey used a high-yielding Indonesian inbred rice variety he got from a trophobiotic practitioner he met in Facebook.

In his desire to convert his entire six-hectares into an organic rice farm quickly, Doc Joey stopped chemical applications immediately and applied the following on his six-hectare farm, including the 1,035-sqm plot where he was testing SRI for the first time:

Organic input Details
Green manure 20 kg/ha munggo (mung beans) broadcast before land preparation, then harrowed at the flowering stage
Vermicast 5 bags/ha on last harrowing and an additional 2 bags as top dressing for the SRI plot only
Chicken manure 15 bags/ha
Goat manure Unknown amount, “I just gave instructions to dump all goat manure on the SRI plot during land preparation.”
Indigenous micro-organisms 2 (IMO-2) Sprayed on the field after the first harrowing, at a rate of 30ml / 16L sprayer and 5 sprayers/ha to speed up decomposition
Vermi-tea 6 kg of vermi-cast in 100ml water with 3 kg molasses, brewed for 48 hours and used to dilute the NF concoctions (see below)
Natural Farming (NF) concoctions IMO, Fish/Kuhol Amino Acid with seaweeds, Fermented Plant Juice, Fermented Fruit Juice, Oriental Herbal Nutriet, Calphos, calcium from eggshell, and Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum
Vermi-tea with NF Sprayed every week starting 7 days after transplanting

After listing them all, Doc Joey himself expresses amazement at the amount of organic inputs they put in.

They transplanted the seedlings with care when they were just 10 days old, putting one seedling per hill, and observing the recommended distance of 25 x 25 cm. The fields were alternately flooded and dried, to encourage profuse and deep root growth. Finally, Doc Joey bought two rotary weeders from a Gabaldon specialty shop for the mandatory shallow cultivation every 7-10 days, required by SRI to aerate the soil and control weeds.

No chemical inputs were used at all.

In a separate 27-meter x 20-meter control plot, Doc Joey planted the same variety, using the conventional methods of growing rice: broadcasting directly into the field and fertilizing with a mix of organic and chemical inputs.

Korean Natural Farming, Filipino-style

Under the supervision of Doc Joey and with Jun’s advice, resident farmer Benny Tolentino and his wife Teodora also learned to make compost and various “concoctions,” as they are known in organic circles.

The concoctions are fermented mixes made from commonly available materials, which can hasten composting, enhance growth, add more nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, or calcium, and generally provide the same things that chemical treatments provide, but in an organic way. This system of making concoctions is separately known as the “Korean Natural Farming System” (KNFS), because it was developed by scientist Dr. Han Kyu Cho of Korea. Although not part of SRI, KNFS complements it perfectly and is taught together with SRI by SRI Pilipinas in its seminars and trainings. Doc Joey calls the system “NF,” for “Natural Farming”.

While doing all these things, Doc Joey shared every step of the way, as the trial went along, with his online friends, all natural farming enthusiasts.

He also shared tidbits of information gathered from the local SRI network that were useful to farmers. For instance:

On attacks by the Golden Kuhol (a common criticism of the SRI method): “in our experience using SRI, kuhol was not a problem despite wide infestation in our area [because we plant] the seedling in mud instead of submerging it in water, [and they] cannot move well in mud; the spacing is so wide [that the] kuhol senses that it is not worth their effort to go for a very small plantlet and have to travel wide to get to the next; we collect kuhol including the eggs to make it into fertilizer.”

To control rats: some SRI farmers roast raw rice [and] then mix it with some cement, using plastic gloves to prevent human smell from giving the mixture away. The fragrant aroma of roasted rice attracts the rats. The powdery cement quickly turns solid in the rats’ gut, leading to their death.

Doc Joey’s online friend Eddie Canuto, also an SRI adopter, shares another technique: wearing plastic gloves as usual, get some “is-is” leaves (“takinis” in Ilonggo, often used in scouring pots or as native sandpaper; scientific name, Leucosyke capitellata). Put some sardine sauce on them and leave them where rats tend to go. When the rats lick the sauce, the “hair” of the is-is will stick like needles to their tongue, impairing their eating ability and eventually killing them.

Thus, vicariously, Doc Joey’s online friends shared the excitement, the challenges, the joys and disappointments of growing rice with their fellow natural farming practitioner.

Success on first try

The SRI result astounded everyone – 338 cavans/hectare, more than four times the national average, using no hybrid seeds or chemical inputs, and on Doc Joey’s first try at SRI and first season of organic conversion at that!

Encouraged, he will now be trying SRI in the coming planting season on a half-hectare rice field, to make sure that SRI will also work on a larger scale. If he succeeds, he says, he will try SRI again in a full hectare. “If the results are still convincing, then SRI will be my sole method of rice planting in the six-hectare farm.”

“The real significance of Doc Joey’s feat,” Dr. Mely Cervantes, researcher and head of extension services of CBSUA explains, “is that it shows how farmers can improve their yields quickly, without using expensive hybrid varieties which they can use only once or similarly expensive chemical inputs that poison not only soil organisms but also the farmers themselves as well as their families.”

When SRI Pilipinas learned about the results, the group immediately suggested to Doc Joey to ask a Department of Agriculture representative to double-check the harvest and certify their findings. Unfortunately, the entire SRI crop had been harvested. “Actually, it was furthest from my mind that the outcome will be like this,” Doc Joey tells his online friends.

Doc Joey says he will try again on a larger scale – a 0.5-hectare rice field. And this time, he will be “more particular about documentation,” he says.

SRI Pilipinas also asked Doc Joey to join their 2013 contest, but the doctor demurred.

“I don’t like pressures,” he reasons. “My blood pressure might rise uncontrolled if I join,” he laughs.

“Pressure is good, Doc,” counters one of his online friends.

“Join the contest not to win, but to test yourself,” the group’s coordinator suggests. “Like some marathons, our contest is a competition among friends, and for most participants, finishing it is victory enough,” he adds.

Government support needed

Venancio Garde Jr., the SRI trainer who advised Doc Joey and who serves as the SRI Pilipinas coordinator for North Luzon, explains that they are using the contest format to promote knowledge of SRI more widely among farmers. “What we really need, though,” he says, “is for the government to promote SRI officially among farmers, like what the governments of Bihar and Cambodia have done.” With SRI, Cambodia doubled its national rice production in eight years. Bihar, a state in northeast India, was previously one of the most depressed areas in the country. With SRI, it is moving today to overtake Punjab as India’s top rice producer.

Garde thinks that an administration which adopts SRI as a government program will bring the country rice self-sufficiency within its term.

And it will make rice farming a viable operation for farmers, Doc Joey might add.

[To get free lessons in SRI, farmers can text their name and complete address to the SRI Pilipinas Hotline: 0939-117-8999.]

Where are the contestants: SRI Pilipinas 2013 organic SRI contest

This map contains the location of all Luzon contestants in the 2013 organic SRI contest of SRI Pilipinas.

This map  contains the location of all Palawan/Visayas/Mindanao contestants in the 2013 organic SRI contest of SRI Pilipinas.

 

Now available: printed and online versions of a book on SRI for Filipino rice farmers

A new 137-page book on the system of rice intensification (SRI) written specifically for the typical Filipino farmer is now available. It is hard-bound, written in Pilipino, and printed on larger-than-usual types (13 pts).

The book Ang Sistema sa Pagpapalago ng Palay can be ordered from SRI Pilipinas (63-939-117-8999; 63-917-811-7747). The book’s P300 price includes shipping. The book will be delivered by courier to any Philippine address or sent for pick up in a courier outlet nearest the given address. A free DVD on SRI is also included.

If you have a friend or relative who plants rice, the book will make a very nice gift.

The full text of the book can also downloaded for free. Its electronic version consists of three PDF files:

SRI is the revolutionary method of growing rice which raises yields and cut costs through simple changes in the way the farmer grows rice. It works with any variety and has been successfully tried in more than 50 countries.

 

 

 

 

 

Failed Web search: a book that can’t be found on the Internet

I’ve been looking for a book for twenty years. Despite the extent and depth of the Web, after years of searching, I still haven’t managed to find this book.

I saw this book sometime in the late 1980s or early 1990s at a bookshop in the international airport of Penang, Malaysia. I wanted to buy it but didn’t have enough money. Since I was going back to Penang again, I told myself I’d buy it later. I didn’t think of writing down the title or author (stupid, stupid!).

When I went to Penang again a few months later, it was gone.

What I remember most about the book was the full-color illustrations of how timbers in native houses were joined together using a special joint called wedged mortise-and-tenon. There were pages and pages of different ways of using wedges on mortise-and-tenon joints in different parts of a native wooden dwelling, all beautifully illustrated with nice, clear drawings. Even if the book was in English, Filipino carpenters would love this book, I thought. The book might have been on Indonesian houses but I’m not sure now.

I’ve tried the following search terms, in various combinations:

Bali, Indonesian, Asian, Malay

Native, indigenous, traditional, vernacular, ancient

House, building, hut, structure, architecture, timber, wood

Method, practice, technique

Mortise and tenon, wedge, peg

Joinery, carpentry, woodworking, framing

No luck, so far. Some books were close, but they were not it. They were too theoretical, or too architecture-, design-, or style-oriented. They did refer to some techniques and methods, but not enough. Some had photos or black-and-white drawings of timber joints, but none like the lush colored illustrations in the book I’m looking for. This book was a practical book, which any carpenter would have understood by just looking at the pictures.

It’s the pictures that have stuck on my mind: the mortise (a hole on one timber), the loose-fitting tenon (a protrusion on the end of another timber that would fit the hole on the first one), and the wedge driven with a mallet between the mortise and the tenon to make everything fit tightly. It was a building technique that suited a low-tech society where parts could not be machined to very close tolerances, including societies which could not even make iron nails yet.

The book was about timber-framed, post-and-beam houses, not log homes. It was not about American or European, but native/traditional/indigenous Asian (possibly Indonesian) dwellings. It was not about architecture, or design, or style — at least, not the drawings, which are what I remember best. The illustrations (I remember them as colored illustrations, not photos) were about joining a member of a timber structure to another member. The book might have also touched on architecture, design or style, but these were not the dominant themes.

Aside from Google Books and Amazon.com, I’ve also searched Google Images, hoping I’d see some of those illustrations that have etched themselves in my mind. No luck.

I’m still searching, and I’d appreciate any hint or help.

In my search, I’ve struck gold too, even if it wasn’t the book I was looking for.

I found a book on roundwood (wood which has not been processed — usually to be squared — in a lumber mill) and how to use these in wooden dwellings.

I’ve also found a sequel to that classic book Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander, written by some of his co-authors. This one is focused on homes, not buildings, neighborhoods or communities.

I found a very interesting method of connecting lengths of wood for a roof, called reciprocal framing, which lent itself very well to many-sided (hexagonal, octagonal, or even circular) structures.

I also found an interesting piece of software by Google called Sketchup, for 3-D drawings. Unfortunately, however, it has no version for Linux.

Along the way, I’ve also learned much about timber and wood joinery — much more than I could use in a lifetime.

I still want that book, though…

SRI in SMS: Text lessons on rice production by SRI Pilipinas

Due to insistent requests, I am posting the following series of lessons in Tagalog/Pilipino on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). We send these lessons 5-18 SMS texts at a time to farmers who request them. Thus we are able to provide lessons to farmers who have no Internet, newspaper or television access.

1. World record sa palay harvest: 448 kaban sa isang ektarya

Balita! Noong Nov 2011 nakuha ng 5 ordinaryong rice farmers sa bansang India ang pinakamatataas na palay harvest kada ektarya sa buong mundo:

Sumant Kumar, 448 kaban (bagong world record sa palay harvest); Krishna Kumar, 440; Nitish Kumar, 392; Ramanand Singh, 384 kaban; at Sanjay Kumar, 380.

Lahat ng 5 ay gumamit ng SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI), na natutuhan lang nila noong 2008. Matapos ang 3 taon, na-break na nila ang world record.

Para makumpirma ang report, inimbistiga ng mga awtoridad sa agrikultura ng India ang mga bukid ng lima. At pinatotohanan nila ang mga nareport na ani.

Ang lumang world record (380 kaban) ay hawak ng bantog na scientist si Yuan Longping, imbentor ng hybrid rice, na 40 taon nagresearch tungkol sa palay.

Ito ang kahulugan ng bagong world record sa palay harvest: Magsasaka, tinalo ang siyentista — ANG SRI AY MADALING MATUTUHAN NG MAGSASAKA

Tatlong taon lng, hindi dekada ang kinailangan ng mga magsasaka para makakuha ng napakatataas na ani — SA SRI, MABILIS ANG RESULTA.

Hindi lang isa kundi 5 magsasaka ang tumalo sa lumang world record–HINDI ITO TSAMBA, TOTOONG EPEKTIBO ANG SRI, MADALING MATUTUHAN AT MABILIS ANG RESULTA

Hinati ni Sumant Kumar ang kanyang bukid sa dalawa: sa isa, karaniwang sistema ang ginamit niya, sa kabila, sistemang SRI ang ginamit nya.

Sa karaniwang sistema, umani sya ng 130 kaban/ektarya. Sa sistemang SRI, umani siya ng 448 kaban/ektarya. Malinaw na mas epektibo ang SRI!

Sa mga susunod pang serye ng txt, ipaliliwanag namin ang SRI, para magamit din nyo ito sa inyong palayan. Libre ito. Walang mababawas sa load nyo.

Ang susunod na serye ay sa ITSURA NG PALAY NA MKPGBIBIGAY NG 22,400 KILONG BUTIL(448 kban) KADA EKTARYA, ang kailangang dami ng uhay at butil kada uhay.

Bago burahin yng mga naunang txt, pkikopya po sa notebook. Pwde n po b itext ang susunod n serye? Pkisend po 1 sa 3 sagot: “TXT PLS”/”HNDI PA”/”AYAW NA”
./sri.world_record.msg/

2. Ang itsura ng palay na pang-world record

Ano ang hitsura ng palay na magbibigay ng world record na 22,400 kilo sa isang ektarya? Ilang uhay dapat sa 1 puno, ilang butil sa 1 uhay?

Sa SRI, 25 cm ang dstansya sa bawat puno, o 4 na puno kada 1 metro, 16 na puno (4 x 4) kada metro kwadrado, at 160,000 puno (16 x 10,000) sa 1 ektarya.

Kung paghahati-hatian ang 22,400 kilo ng butil ng 160,000 puno ng palay (22,400 hinati sa 160,000), kailangang magbigay ang isang puno ng .14 kilo.

Dahil 1 kilo ang karaniwang bigat ng 40,000 butil, ang .14 kilo ay may 5,600 butil (.14 x 40,000). Bawat puno, kng gayon, ay dapat mgbunga ng 5,600 butil.

Ito ang mga kombinasyon ng uhay-kada-puno at butil-kada-uhay na magbibigay ng 5,600 butil: 56 uhay/100 butil; 50 uhay/112 butil; 40 uhay/140 butil;

35 uhay/160 butil; 32 uhay/175 butil; 28 uhay/200 butil; 25 uhay/224 butil; 20 uhay/280 butil; 16 uhay; 350 butil.

Ayon sa mga matagal nang gumagamit ng SRI, madaling makakita sa SRI ng 20, 30 hanggang 40 uhay at 150 hanggang 250 butil.

Ang hamon, para maabot ang world record, ay makuha ito di lamang sa iilang puno, kundi sa bawat isa sa 160,000 puno sa 1 ektarya. Mahirap pero pwde.

Ang susunod na serye ay tngkol sa ANIM NA PRINSIPYO NG SRI. Ang mga prinsipyong ito’y hndi nagbabago, kahit magbago ang lugar o kondisyon ng gamit ng SRI.

Bago burahin yng mga naunang txt, pkikopya po sa notebook. Pwde n po b itext ang susunod n serye? Pkisagot lng po: “TXT PLS”/”HNDI PA”/”AYAW NA”
./sri.phenotype.msg/

3. Anim na prinsipyo ng SRI

PRINSIPYO 1. Mglagay ng maraming kompost/organikong mteryal sa lupa. BAKIT:ibabalik ng kmpost ang mga organismong natural na nagbibigay-sustansya sa lupa.

PRINSIPYO 2. Huwag saktan ang punla. BAKIT: pag nasaktan o nasugatan ang punla, laluna pag nagsimula na itong magsuwi, hndi na sya magsusuwi ng marami.

PRINSIPYO 3. Ilipat ang punla ng maaga. BAKIT: Mas madali itong gumaling mula sa anumang pnsala saka mas mahaba ang panahon nya para magsuwi ng marami.

PRINSIPYO 4. Bigyan ang bawat puno sapat na espasyong solo nila. BAKIT: para makakuha bawat puno ng sapat na sustansiya, tubig, hangin at sinag ng araw.

PRINSIPYO 5. Kailangang makapasok sa lupa ang hangin. BAKIT: dahil kailangan ng mga organismo sa lupa at ng mga ugat ng halaman ang oxygen.

PRINSIPYO 6. Tulungang lumago at lumalim ang ugat ng palay. BAKIT: Kung manipis at mababaw ang ugat, hndi magsusuwi at mamumunga ng marami ang palay.

Dalawa ang epekto ng 6 na prinsipyong ito sa palay: DADAMI ANG SUWI, UHAY AT BUTIL NG PALAY; AT KAKAPAL AT LALALIM ANG MGA UGAT NITO. Importante pareho.

Kahit ilan lang sa 6 na prinsipyo ang masunod, mkakakita na ng magandang epekto sa palay. Mas maraming prnsipyo ang nasusunod, mas maganda ang epekto.

Pnkamaganda kung lahat ng prnsipyo ng SRI ay nasusunod, dahil bawat prnsipyo ay sumusuporta sa iba pa. Madaling sundin lahat, kng maliit muna ang pitak.

Ang 6 na prinsipyo ng SRI ay dapat magsilbing gabay sa iba’t ibang lugar at kondisyon, dahil ang 6 na ito ang esensiya ng SRI bilang isang sistema.

Ang susunod na serye ay ang SARI-SARING PRAKTIKA NG SRI. Ang mga praktikang ito ay maaaring magbago batay sa lugar, kondisyon at diskarte ng magsasaka.

Bago burahin yng mga txt, pkikopya po sa notebook. Itetxt na po b namin ang susunod n serye? Pumili ng 1 sa 3 sagot: “TXT PLS”/”HNDI PA”/”AYAW NA”
./sri.principles.msg/

4. Sari-saring praktika ng SRI

MGSIMULA SA PNKAMALIIT nyong pitak, 50-500 metro kwadrado lng (50-100 lng, kng walang kompost). Alamin muna mga problema sa SRI bago sumubok sa malaki.

1-2 buwan bago mgtanim, humingi/mg-ipon ng DAYAMI & SARI-SARING ORGANIKONG MATERYAL (DAHON,TAENG HAYOP, atbp), ikalat sa bukid, at araruhin para mabulok.

Pwde rng itambak mga bubulukin sa isang imbakan n may bubong at di nauulanan, para mailagay ang kmpost kng saan lng kailangan, hlimbawa, sa kama ng punla.

8-12 araw bago mgtanim, ibabad ang bnhi ng 24-48 oras at isabog sa kama nang MAS MADALANG SA NKAGAWIAN, para mas mdaling mghiwalay ang ugat ng mga punla.

Kng 2 dahon na ang punla (IDAD 8-12 ARAW), ilipat na ang mga ito; ang pglilipatang bukid ay HNDI DAPAT BAHA kundi MAPUTIK LNG, para madali itong markahan.

Ityempo ang pglilipat HABANG HNDI MAULAN. Gumawa ng kalaykay na may layong 25cm ang mga ngipin; mrkahan ang pglilipatang bukid ng mga kwadradong 25×25 cm.

Mgtanim ng ISANG PUNLA SA BAWAT KROSING ng mga kwdrado. Tiyaking ksama sa punla ang bahay-bnhi at putik sa ugat. Tpusin ang pgllipat sa loob ng 20 minuto.

Pgklipat, HWAG AGAD BAHAIN ANG BUKID, para di lumitaw ang kuhol. Gawing manaka-naka (INTERMITTENT) ang IRIGASYON; patuyuin 5-7 araw, bahain 2-3 araw.

MGLINIS MABUTI NG DAMO kada 7-10 araw, gamit ang kamay o rotary weeder. PAG MADAMO, MGLINIS AGAD!. Mglinis dn tuwing baha ang pitak at malambot ang lupa.

Ang weeder ay parang munting pison na itnutulak sa pgitan ng mga puno. May mga ngipin ang 2 o 3 gulong nito, para matumba ang damo at mabungkal ang lupa.

Mganda ang rsulta ng SRI kng 20 suwi (o sobra pa) ang namumunga sa bawat puno; bawat suwi ay may 100 butil (o sobra pa) = mahigit 2,000 butil kada puno.

Pwdeng hndi muna gawin ang hndi pa kayang hakbang (halimbawa ang kontrol sa tubig o rotary weeding). Pero MAS MARAMI SA SRI ANG NASUSUNOD, MAS MAGANDA.

Ang pnakaimportante, SUBUKAN NGAYON DN SA MALIIT NA PITAK (100-500 metro kwadrado), para makita. KUNG IPGPAPALIBAN, WALANG MATUTUTUHAN. SUBUKAN AGAD!

Kung plano nyong subukan ang SRI, itxt po sa amin: Gagawin ko ang SRI sa buwan ng____, sa ____metro kwdradong pitak sa bayan ng______, probnsya ng______.

Pwde po idownload mula sa Internet ang libreng SRI video. I-search lang “World Bank SRI video”. Pwde rn namin ipadala DVD sa inyo, P100 ang bayad.

Sa susunod na serye, iisa-isahin ang mga HAKBANG na gagawin sa SRI, mula land prep hanggang sa pagkontrol ng damo.
./sri.practices.msg/

5. Mga hakbang na gagawin sa SRI

Tapos na po ang mga lessons, kailangang isa-praktika na ito, at magtanim ng palay gamit ang SRI. Maglaan na ng maliit na pitak pantesting (trial plot).

Tama lang ang 50-500 sqm pantesting. (Kung nag-aaral lumangoy, sa mababaw na ilog muna, hndi sa malalim na dagat.) Balikan natin ang mga praktika ng SRI:

LAND PREP: Lagyan ang pitak ng maraming kompost o vermicast. Kasindami, kng maaari, ng inani sa pitak. Hlimbawa, 5 bag ng kompost kung 5 kaban ang inani.

LAND PREP: Pag nasuyod na ang lupa, mag-ispray ng IMO para mamatay ang mga buto ng damo at lumaki nang mabilis ang mga tumubo na. Tapos, suyurin ulit.

PAGPUPUNLA: Gumamit ng punlaan na 50% lupa, 50% kompost. Salain ang binhi sa tubig-alat. Yung mga lumubog lang ang ipunla. Itapon yung lumutang.

PAGPUPUNLA: Maglaan ng 50 gramong binhi kada 100 sqm na pglilipatan. Ipunla nang madalang: 1 metro kwdradong seed bed o seed trays kada 50 gramong binhi.

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla pag may 2 dahon na (8-12 araw). Kumuha ng punla gamit ang pala/kutsara ng kantero. Kapalan ang lupa para di tamaan mga ugat.

PAGTATANIM: Ihiwalay ang 1 punla (hndi 2 o 3, kundi ISA), kasama pa ang palay, lupa at putik sa ugat, at itanim sa distasyang 25 x 25 cm (10 pulgada).

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla parang baby na inililipat galing duyan papnta sa kama: hndi sya naistorbo, nagising o nsaktan at walang sugat, pilay o bali.

KADA 7-10 ARAW: Bahain ang lupa (2-3 araw) para mbulok ang damo, patuyuin ng mas mtagal (5-7 araw), para habulin ng mga ugat ang tubig sa ilalim ng lupa.

DI DAPAT MKABUWELO ANG DAMO. Pag tuyo ang lupa, mglalabasan ang damo. Bunutin/bungkalin agad sila, gamit ang kamay o weeder. Pgkatapos, magspray ng IMO.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol iba pang BENEPISYO SA MAGSASAKA ng System of Rice Intensification (SRI), bukod sa mataas na ani.
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6. Mga benepisyo sa magsasaka

Alam na po natin na maitataas ng SRI ang ani sa palay. Noong Nobyembre 2011, ang pnkmataas na ani sa palay sa buong mundo ay naitala ng SRI sa India.

Matipid ang SRI sa binhi. Ang kailangan lng ay 5 kilong binhi kada ektarya, di tulad sa ibang sistemang gumagamit ng 20 kilo, 40, o sobra pa kada ektarya.

Matipid ang SRI sa tubig, Sa karanasan, 40-50% ng tubig ang matitipid, dahil sa SRI, hindi binabaha ng tuluy-tuloy ang bukid kundi pinatutuyo rin.

Matipid ang SRI sa abono dahil sa SRI, ang lupa ay pinatataba gamit ang mga binulok na organikong materyal (kompost), hindi ang komersiyal na abono.

Sa SRI, maaring mas maraming trabaho sa simula. Pero pag kabisado na ang sistema, menos trabaho rin sa SRI, ayon sa matagal ng gumagamit nito.

Ang mga puno ng palay na laking-SRI ay matitibay. Ang mga ugat ay malago at malalim. Kayat mas kaunti ang pnsala sa palay dulot ng bagyo, baha o tagtuyot.

Mas kaunti ang methane na sumisingaw sa bukid na hindi nkababad sa tubig ng tuluy-tuloy (tulad ng itinuturo sa SRI). Ang methane ay isang greenhouse gas.

Dahil mas kaunting methane ang nalilikha kung SRI ang gamit, ang SRI ay mkkatulong maiwasan ang pagbabago sa klima at pag-init ng mundo (global warming).

Ang SRI ay hndi binhi/variety, kundi paraan ng pg-aalaga kayat mas marami kang pgpipiliang binhi: malagkit, mabango, inbred,hybrid,fancy, may kulay, atbp.

Ang susunod na serye ay ang PAGGAWA NG KOMPOST mula sa organikong materyal. Kompost ang ginagamit sa SRI para tumaba nang husto ang lupa.
./sri.benefits.msg/

7. Gumawa ng kompost

GUMAWA NG KOMPOST (binulok na organikong materyal): Ito’y mayaman sa mga organismo sa lupa at mga itlog nila. Sila ang nagbibigay ng sustansya sa halaman.

Mag-ipon ng dayami (huwag sunugin!); haluan ng dahon, kusot, seaweeds (maganda!), tae ng hayop, at iba png organikong materyal. Takpan at hayaang mabulok.

Diligin ng regular. Ilang buwan lng, may kmpost k na. Kng sa bukid msmo bbulukin ang orgnikong materyal, ikalat ito 1 buwan bgo mgpunla, para mbulok muna.

GAANO KARAMI? Timbangin lahat ng inalis sa bukid (hal. 2000 kg palay + 500 kg gulay). Gnito karami dn, kng pwde, ang ilagay na kmpost (sa hal. 2,500 kg).

Sa abonong kemikal, may overdose; sa kmpost, wala. Mas marami, mas mganda. Kng kulang sa kmpost, liitan ang trial. Kng walang kmpost, kahit 50-100sqm lng.

Ang pnakamagandang pataba sa lahat ay ang dumi ng bulate (vermicast). Ito’y mayaman sa mabubuting mikrobyo, NPK, at micronutrients na maganda sa halaman.

Kng bibili dn lng ng abono, vermicast ang bilhin. Mas mbuti, mg-aral ng vermiculture, para mkagawa ng sariling vermicast. Huwag haluan ng abonong kemikal.

Sa susunod na serye, ipaliliwanag namin kung bakit mas maganda ang KOMPOST kaysa ABONONG KEMIKAL, at kung bakit hndi dapat paghaluin ang dalawa.
./sri.kompost.msg/

8. Ang diperensya ng kompost sa abonong kemikal

Ang diperensya ng KOMPOST sa ABONONG KEMIKAL: UNA, ang kompost ay maaring gawin ng magsasaka; ang abonong kemikal ay bibilhin (o uutangin) pa;

IKALAWA, habang tumatagal, tumataba at gumaganda ang lupa sa kompost; umaasim at nasisira ang lupa sa abonong kemikal;

IKATLO, ang mga tanim na pinalaki sa kompost ay puno ng sustansya; ang pinalaki sa kemikal ay kulang na sa sustansiya, may dala pang sakit.

Ang KOMPOST ay tinatawag ding ORGANIC FERTILIZER. Kahit kulang sa kompost, huwag itong haluan ng abonong kemikal. Masasayang ang ating kompost!

Masustansya ang kompost dahil sa dami ng dala nitong mga organismo sa lupa at itlog nila: mga mikrobyo, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, amag, lumot, lebadura,

kutong-lupa, hanip, alupihan, palasingsingan, langgam, anay, bulate, atbp. Pgkain nila ang organikong materyal, lason sa kanila ang abonong kmikal.

Hndi lang NPK at iba pang sustansya at micronutrients ang ibinibigay ng kompost. Ibabalik din nito sa lupa ang mga organismong pinatay ng abonong kemikal.

Masama ang abonong kemikal (purong NPK) sa mga organismong ito, kayat huwag haluan ng abonong kemikal ang kompost.

Pag hinaluan ng kemikal ang kompost, ang mga dala-dala nitong organismo at itlog nila ay malalason at mamamatay. HUWAG HALUAN NG KEMIKAL ANG KOMPOST!

CONGRATULATIONS! Tapos na po ang SRI lessons natin. Ang susunod na serye ay ang KOREAN NATURAL FARMING SYSTEM, mga pndilig sa bukid na mgagawa sa bahay.

Sa susunod n serye, ang una sa KNFS, ituturo kng PAANO MAGPARAMI NG INDIGENOUS MICROORGANISMS (IMO), mga katutubong mkrobyo sa lupa na mganda sa halaman.
./sri.komp_vs_npk.msg/

9. Magparami ng indigenous microorganisms (IMO)

MAGPARAMI NG INDIGENOUS MICROORGANISMS (IMO): Magsaing sa palayok ng 1-kilo bigas. Palamigin. Takpan ang bibig ng palayok ng tela/papel.

Talian ng goma, para hndi pasukin ng insekto. Ipwesto ang palayok sa mga nabubulok na dahon sa lilim ng mga puno o kawayanan (d best sa gubat).

Pagkaraan ng 3 araw, kung marami nang puting amag sa kanin, iuwi ang palayok. Haluan ng 1-kilo pulot o pulang asukal (walang halong tubig).

Takpan ng bagong tela/papel, talian ulit ng goma. Huwag higpitan ang takip, para mkasingaw! Itabi ng 7 araw sa madilim at malamig na lugar para maburo

(fermentation, tulad ng paggawa ng suka) hanggang mgmukhang putik. Ito ang IMO. Para gamitin, magtimpla ng 2 kutsara nito kada litro ng tubig.

I-spray ito sa kompost, para mas mbilis mabulok; sa kulungan ng manok at baboy, para mwala ang amoy ng dumi; foliar fertlizer sa palay at iba png halaman.

Pwde ring pangkntrol sa peste/sakit; ispray sa na-weeder na damo,para mabulok agad ito; sa kuhol, para lumambot ang kanilang shells.

Maraming klase ng IMO, kung papalitan ang kanin ng ibang lahok: kung mga lamang-isda, magiging FAA (fish amino acid), na mayaman sa nitroheno.

Kung mga prutas (puwedeng sobra sa hinog, hwag lng bulok), magiging FFJ (fermented fruit juice), na pmpatamis sa namumunga.

Kung talbos ng kngkong, kamote o alugbati o katawan ng saging na saba, magiging fermented plant juice (FPJ), na nagpapabilis sa paglaki ng mga halaman.

Ang susunod na serye: FISH AMINO ACID (FAA), para sa dagdag na nitroheno.
./sri.imo.msg/

10. Gumawa ng Fish Amino Acid (FAA)

Ang Fish Amino Acid (FAA) ay ginagamit na pamparami ng nitroheno sa lupa. Maaari itong i-spray o idilig sa halaman, sa kompost, at sa lupa.

Mag-ipon ng parte isda (tinik, bituka, hasang at balat) o suso. Timbangin. Ilagay sa banga o timba. Haluan ng kasimbigat na pulot o pulang asukal.

Takpan ang lalagyan at talian. Ilagay sa malamig/madilim na lugar. Hayaang maburo ng 10 araw. Ang makukuhang katas ay ang Fish Amino Acid (FAA).

Para gamitin, ihalo ang 2 kutsara ng FAA sa 1 litrong tubig. I-spray o idilig sa halaman, kompost, at lupa. Magbibigay ito ng nitroheno sa halaman.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa FERMENTED PLANT JUICE (FPJ), na tumutulong sa photosynthesis at para lumaki nang mas mabilis ang halaman
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11. Gumawa ng Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ)

Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ): mas mabilis dumami ang IMO, mas mabilis lumaki ang halaman, at nagiging mas berde ang mga dahon (mabuti sa photosynthesis).

Kumuha: 2 kilong talbos ng kamote, kangkong o alugbati, labong, o dumalagang saba. Tadtarin. Haluan ng 1 kilong pulang asukal. Iwan sa palayok ng 1 araw.

Takpan ng malinis na papel at talian. Matapos maburo ng 7 araw, pwde nang gamitin ang FPJ, 2 kutsara ng katas sa 1 litrong tubig, pndilig sa lupa at dahon.

Ang FPJ ay mayaman sa growth hormones mula sa halamang mabilis lumaki. Nakakatulong ito sa mabilis na paglago ng halaman. Nakapagpaparami din ito ng IMO.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa FERMENTED FRUIT JUICE (FFJ), na ginagamit pampatamis ng mga bunga.
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12. Gumawa ng Fermented Fruit Juice (FPJ)

Ang Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ) ay nagbibigay ng dagdag na potassium sa halaman at ginagamit na pampatamis sa prutas ng mga bungang-kahoy.

Kumuha ng 1 kilong hinog na prutas (puwera balat at buto). Puwede ang mangga, saging, papaya, abokado, o magulang na kalabasa.

Talupan, tadtarin, at ilagay sa banga. Huwag gumamit ng plastik o aluminum. Haluan ng 1 kilong pulot o pulang asukal.

Takpan ng malinis na tela o papel. Talian. Ilagay sa malamig/madilim na lugar. Hayaang maburo ng 7 araw. Ang makukuhang katas ay ang Fermented Fruit Juice.

Magtimpla ng pandilig: ihalo ang 2 kutsarang FFJ sa 1 litrong tubig. Ipandilig sa mga dahon at ugat. Kung malinis ang pagkakagawa, puwede ring inumin.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa ORIENTAL HERBAL NUTRIENTS (OHN), na ginagamit na pampalusog at pangkontra sa sari-saring sakit.
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13. Gumawa ng Oriental Herbal Nutrient (OHN)

OHN: Magtadtad ng 5 kg luya o bawang. Ilagay sa garapon. Lagyan ng beer hanggang sa 1/3 ng garapon. Pagkaraan ng 12 oras, maglagay ng 1 kg pulang asukal.

Hayaang maburo ng 4-5 araw. Punuin ang garapon ng gin hanggang leeg. Tkpan at talian. Mghintay ng 10 araw. Kumuha ng sabaw na kasindami ng nilagay na gin.

Gawin ng 5 beses ang pglalagay ng gin / pgkuha ng sabaw. Sa ika-4 at ika-5 ulit, samahan ang gin ng dnikdik na sili, panyawan (mkabuhay), at

bunga ng neem. para tumapang ang timpla ng OHN. Para magtimpla ng pandilig: ihalo ang 2 kutsara ng OHN sa 1 litrong tubig.

Pwdeng ipandilig ang tinimpla sa lupa at dahon ng halaman, kasama ang IMO, FPJ at FFJ, kada linggo, pag nanghihina ang tanim, o pag mamumulaklak na ito.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa PAGGAWA NG CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, na ginagamit pampabulaklak, at CALCIUM, na ginagamit naman pampatatag sa bulaklak.
./sri.ohn.msg/

14. Gumawa ng Calcium at Calcium Phosphate

Ang CALCIUM PHOSPHATE ay ginagamit pampabulaklak. Magpakulo sa tubig ng 2 kilong buto ng hayop hanggang sa maalis ang laman at taba. Patuyuin pagkatapos.

Iihaw ang buto hanggang sa mag-kulay uling. Palamigin pagkatapos.

Ilagay sa banga o timba. Lagyan ng 5 galon na sukang natural (galing sa niyog, tubo, saging, sasa, atbp.), hindi synthetic. Takpan at itabi ng 30 araw.

Timpla: ihalo ang 2 kutsarang katas sa 1 litrong tubig. Idilig sa halaman, lupa at kompost.

Kung ang CALCIUM PHOSPHATE ay pampabulaklak, ang CALCIUM naman ay pmpatatag sa mga bulaklak ng halaman. Ganito gumawa ng CALCIUM na png-ispray o pandilig:

Magprito ng 2 kilong balat ng itlog hanggang mangitim. Palamigin. Ilagay sa banga o timba. Dagdagan ng 5 galon na sukang niyog (walang kulay).

Takpan. Itabi ng 20 araw. Timpla: ihalo ang 2 kutsarang katas sa 1 litrong tubig. Idilig o iispray sa halaman, lupa at kompost.

Sa susunod na serye, malalaman kung kailan ginagamit ang IMO, FPJ, OHN, FAA, calcium at calcium phosphate ang iba pang lahok ng NFS.
./sri.calcium.msg/

15. Kailan ginagamit ang iba’t ibang lahok ng NFS

Bawat halaman ay dumadaan sa paglaki (growth stage) at pamumunga (reproductive stage). Sa pagitan ay ang changeover period, pag malapit nang mamumulaklak.

Sa paglaki, magspray kada linggo ng IMO, FPJ, OHN at FAA. Kung mukhang nasobrahan sa nitroheno ang halaman, magspray ng calcium phosphate.

Sa pagitan, magspray kada linggo ng IMO, FPJ, OHN, calcium phosphate at calcium. Kung mabagal ang paglaki, magspray ng FAA.

Sa pagitan, pinakaimportanteng sustansiya ang calcium phosphate (calphos) para sa pamumulaklak at ang calcium para maging prutas ang bulaklak.

Sa pamumunga, magspray kada linggo ng IMO, FPJ, OHN, calphos at calcium. Mgspray din ng FFJ para tumamis ang mga bunga at ng FAA kung mabagal ang paglaki.

Habang gumaganda at tumataba ang lupa, maaaring mas madalang na ang pagspray ng mga ito.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SERUM (LAS), na ginagamit pangkontra sa mga sakit na galing sa amag at virus.
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16. Gumawa ng Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum (LAS)

Ang LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SERUM (LAS) ay ginagamit pangkontra sa sakit na galing sa amag at virus.

Ipunin ang pinaghugasan ng bigas (na puno ng mikrobyo) sa isang timba o banga.

Paabutin sa 7” pulgada ang taas ng pinaghugasang tubig. Itabi ang banga sa malamig/madilim na lugar.

Pagkatapos ng 7 araw, alisin ang lumutang na latak. Itira lang ang tubig.

Ilipat ang tubig sa isa pang lalagyan. Haluan ng gatas, na 10 ulit ang dami kaysa tubig.

Takpan ng malinis na papel. Talian. Pagkatapos ng 7 araw, lulutang ang taba (mula sa gatas) at magkukulay-dilaw ang tubig.

Kunin ang dilaw na tubig. Haluan ito ng kasindaming pulang asukal. Itabi ng 7 araw sa malamig/madilim na lugar. Dito makukuha ang LAS.

Timpla: ihalo ang 2 kutsara ng LAS sa 1 litrong tubig. Pwdeng ipainom sa hayop, iispray sa kulungan para maalis ang amoy, o idilig sa halaman at sa kmpost.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa CARBONIZED RICE HULL(CRH) o INULING NA IPA, pandagdag ng micronutrients at pampaganda sa istruktura ng lupa.
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17. Gumawa ng Carbonized Rice Hull (CRH) o Inuling na Ipa

Ang CARBONIZED RICE HULL (CRH) o INULING NA IPA ay nagdadagdag ng micronutrients at nagpapaganda sa istruktura ng lupa. Tulad ito ng paggawa ng uling.

Gumawa ng CARBONIZER mula sa karaniwang lata ng gaas o biscuit (18 liters), pwedeng kwadrado (23 x 23 x 34 cm) o bilog. Alisin ang ibabaw (top) ng lata.

Sa ilalim ng lata, gumawa ng bilog na butas, 10 cm ang lapad (diameter). Sa paligid ng lata, gumawa ng maraming mliliit na butas (na hndi kasya ang ipa).

Gawing 2.5 cm ang distansya ng mga butas sa isa’t isa, o 500 butas lahat sa paligit ng lata. Ang mga butas na ito’y dadaanan ng hangin (hindi ng ipa).

Gumupit ng #24 GI sheet na 31.4 cm ang lapad at 2 meters ang haba. Irolyo ito nang pahaba para magkorteng tubo na 10 cm ang lapad at 2 metro ang haba.

Talian ng mga alambre ang tubo ng yero para hindi ito bumuka. Isusuot ang tubong ito sa 10-cm na butas sa lata, para makalabas ang usok ng pag-uuling.

Tiyaking 5-8 cm lang ng tsimineya (mahabang tubo) ang nakasuot sa lata, at mahigpit ang pagkakasuot nito sa butas para hindi ito dumausdos pababa.

Sa patag na sahig na lupa o semento, magsimula ng apoy mula sa tuyong kahoy o bao. Ipatong ang carbonizer sa apoy. Magtambak ng ipa sa ibabaw ng lata.

Tambakan ng ipa ang lata hanggang sa matakpan ito nang husto. Pwedeng magtambak ng hanggang sa 50 sako ng ipa. Ang usok ay dapat lumabas sa tsimineya.

Kung malakas ang hangin, lagyan ng mas maraming ipa ang tinatamaan ng hangin dahil mas mabilis magiging uling ang parteng ito.

Tandaan: dapat mamatay ang apoy, para mainit na baga lang ang matira. Kung apoy at hindi baga ang mananaig sa loob, ang ipa’y magiging abo, hindi uling.

Yung mga ipa sa ilalim ng tambak ang pinakahuling magiging uling. Palahin ang mga ito sa tuwi-tuwina at ilagay sa bandang itaas ng tambak.

Magtakip ng panyo sa ilong at bibig habang gumagawa ng CRH, dahil hindi maganda sa kalusugan kung tuluy-tuloy na lumalanghap ng usok nito.

Kung naging uling na ang 90% ng ipa, alisin na ang carbonizer at nagbabagang kahoy/bao sa gitna. Iwasang sumiklab ang apoy para hindi maging abo ang ipa.

Ayusin ang tambak ng 90% uling at 10% ipa para magkorteng bundok ulit at magluto ang natitirang ipa hanggang maging uling din.

Wisikan ng tubig ang CRH para unti-unting mamatay ang mga baga, bumaba ang temperatura nito, tumigil na ang pagluluto, at hindi maging abo ang uling.

Hintaying bumalik ang temperatura ng tambak sa normal at matuyo ang idinilig na tubig, bago gamitin ang CRH o ilagay ito sa mga sako.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa paggawa ng BOKASHI, isang klase ng organikong pataba na ginagamit ng maraming magsasaka sa Japan.
./sri.crh.msg/

18. Gumawa ng Bokashi

Gumawa ng BOKASHI, isang magandang klase ng organikong pataba na unang ginamit sa Japan. Ang prosesong ginagamit ay pagbuburo (tulad ng paggawa ng suka).

Materyales para sa paggawa ng 30 sakong BOKASHI (pwede sa 1 ektarya): 12 sako, tuyong dumi ng hayop; 10 sako, inuling na ipa (CRH); 8 sako, matabang lupa;

Karagdagang materyales: 4 sako, darak; 4 kilo, pulang asukal o pulot; 3.5 litro, tuba; .15 litro (16 kutsara), FPJ o FAA; .15 litro (16 kutsara), IMO.

Pumili ng nasisilungang lugar na di binabaha kung umuulan. Maglagay ng bubong at kanal sa paligid, kung kailangan. Mas mabuti kung sementado ang sahig.

Mas mabuti rin kung ang lugar ay malapit sa bahay, para madaling bantayan, at di mapuntahan ng mga hayop. Pgsama-samahin lahat ng materyales. Haluin ito.

Habang hinahalo, diligan ng kaunting tubig na may halong tuba. Kung may tubig na tumulo pag piniga ang halo, sobra na ang tubig. Itigil na ang pagdidilig.

Haluing mabuti. Palahin ang ilalim at ibunton sa tuktok ng tambak, para magkorteng bundok ito. Takpan ng sako. Haluin ang tambak araw-araw.

Sa unang 7 araw, kung hndi matiis ang init ng tambak pag ipinasok ang kamay dito, haluin nang 2 ulit sa isang araw, para mabawasan ang init ng tambak.

Sa ika-7 araw, diligan ang tambak para mabasa ulit ito. Titigil ang proseso ng pgbuburo kng kulang sa tubig. Pero masisira ang bokashi kung sobrang tubig.

Sa ika 8-14 araw, kung di na mainit sa kamay ang tambak, hndi na ito kailangang haluin. Takpan na lang ito habang hinihintay na matapos ang pagbuburo.

Mtapos ang 14 araw, pwde nang gmitin ang bokashi. Haluang muli ng kasindaming lupa, bago gamitin sa bukid. Organikong pataba ito, kayat walang overdose.

Ang susunod na serye ay tungkol sa paggawa ng ORGANIC PESTICIDES para makontrol ang mga peste sa halaman.
./sri.bokashi.msg/

19. Gumawa ng organic pesticides

Ang mga sumusunod na ORGANIC PESTICIDES ay ginagamit ng mga trainers namin. Maaaring ipalit ang ibang sangkap, depende sa makukuhang lokal na materyal.

Ang mga organic spray ay madalas binubuo ng dalawang bahagi: a) ang mga pinagmumulan ng aktibong sangkap, at ang likidong pantunaw sa aktibong sangkap.

Mga karaniwang pnagmumulan ng aktibong sangkap: siling labuyo; tubli; dahon ng tabako, neem, kakawate; katawan ng makabuhay; laman ng nami; bawang; atbp.

Mga karaniwang pantunaw sa aktibong sangkap: OHN, alcohol, langis, mantika, tubig na may sabon, o iba pang likido na makatutunaw sa aktibong sangkap.

ORGANIC FOLIAR PESTICIDE: Mag-ipon sa 1 sako ng 3-4 kilo ng tae ng kambing, at tig-1 kilo ng dahon ng kakawate, dahon ng neem, at katawan ng makabuhay.

Ibabad ang sako ng mga sangkap sa 1 dram ng tubig. Pagkatapos ng 3 araw, pwde nang ispray ang tubig sa dram sa mga parteng apektado ng peste.

ORGANIC SPRAY KONTRA TUNGRO: Magdikdik hanggang maging pino ng 4 na bilog ng bawang at 4 na bilog ng sibuyas habang ihinahalo ang 4 na kutsarang mantika.

Hndi lulutuin ang lahok. Pag pinung-pino na, ihalo sa 16 litrong tubig. Ispray sa parteng apektado ng tungro.

ORGANIC SPRAY KONTRA ATANGYA. Mag-ipon ng dahon ng tabako, bunga ng siling labuyo, at dinikdik na katawan ng makabuhay (isang baging).

Ibabad muna ang ugat ng tubli ng 7 oras sa putik, bago gamitin, para lumambot ito at maglabas ng katas.

Ibabad ang mga pinagsama-samang sangkap ng 24 oras sa 16 litro ng tubig. Ispray ang pinagbabarang tubig sa mga atangya.

Sa mga sakit na dala ng FUNGUS (tulad ng leafblight), pwdeng gamiting pang-ispray ang IMO at ang organic spray kontra tungro.

CONGRATULATIONS! Natapos nyo na ang mga serye ng SRI at KNFS, na tinatawag ding ORGANIC SRI. Isa na lng ang kailangan para mkumpleto ang inyong pag-aaral.

Ang huling parte ng inyong pag-aaral ay ang praktikum: subukan ang SRI sa isang trial plot. Kung ito ang unang subok nyo, mgtesting muna sa 100-500 sqm.

Sa inyong PRAKTIKUM, patuloy po kaming mgbibigay ng payo sa txt. Pwde pong malaman kung anong buwan nyo planong subukan ang SRI?
./sri.org_pest.msg/

20. Praktikum: step by step

Tapos na po ang mga lessons, kailangang isa-praktika na ito, at magtanim ng palay gamit ang SRI. Maglaan na ng maliit na pitak pantesting (trial plot).

Tama lang ang 50-500 sqm pantesting. (Kung nag-aaral lumangoy, sa mababaw na ilog muna, hndi sa malalim na dagat.) Balikan natin ang mga praktika ng SRI:

LAND PREP: Lagyan ang pitak ng maraming kompost o vermicast. Kasindami, kng maaari, ng inani sa pitak. Hlimbawa, 5 bag ng kompost kung 5 kaban ang inani.

LAND PREP: Pag nasuyod na ang lupa, mag-ispray ng IMO para mamatay ang mga buto ng damo at lumaki nang mabilis ang mga tumubo na. Tapos, suyurin ulit.

PAGPUPUNLA: Gumamit ng punlaan na 50% lupa, 50% kompost. Salain ang binhi sa tubig-alat. Yung mga lumubog lang ang ipunla. Itapon yung lumutang.

PAGPUPUNLA: Maglaan ng 50 gramong binhi kada 100 sqm na pglilipatan. Ipunla nang madalang: 1 metro kwdradong seed bed o seed trays kada 50 gramong binhi.

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla pag may 2 dahon na (8-12 araw). Kumuha ng punla gamit ang pala/kutsara ng kantero. Kapalan ang lupa para di tamaan mga ugat.

PAGTATANIM: Ihiwalay ang 1 punla (hndi 2 o 3, kundi ISA), kasama pa ang palay, lupa at putik sa ugat, at itanim sa distasyang 25 x 25 cm (10 pulgada).

PAGTATANIM: Ilipat ang punla parang baby na inililipat galing duyan papnta sa kama: hndi sya naistorbo, nagising o nsaktan at walang sugat, pilay o bali.

KADA 7-10 ARAW: Bahain ang lupa (2-3 araw) para mbulok ang damo, patuyuin ng mas mtagal (5-7 araw), para habulin ng mga ugat ang tubig sa ilalim ng lupa.

DI DAPAT MKABUWELO ANG DAMO. Pag tuyo ang lupa, mglalabasan ang damo. Bunutin/bungkalin agad sila, gamit ang kamay o weeder. Pgkatapos, magspray ng IMO.

Kung gsto ng patuloy naming payo at teknikal na suporta, itext sa amin ang petsa ng pagpupunla nyo para sa SRI trial. Mgtxt kng may problema. Good luck!
./sri.praktikum.msg/

The new SRI world record in rice yield: what does it mean?

In November 2011, five Indian farmers broke the old world record in rice yield of 19.0 tons/hectare (380 cavans/ha), held by world-famous scientist Prof. Yuan Long-ping, inventor of hybrid rice.

The best of the five, Sumant Kumar, got a yield of 22.4 tons/ha, the new world record.

How did these five farmers beat the old world record? They all used a new method of growing rice, which they learned in 2008. The method is called System of Rice Intensification (SRI).

The new world record tells us three things about SRI:

ONE: SRI is farmer-friendly. Using it, ordinary farmers obtained a yield higher than the best rice scientist in the world could attain. They got a yield higher than IRRI, Philrice, or any other rice scientist has attained. With SRI, farmers can do better than scientists.

TWO: SRI leads to quick results. Prof. Yuan Long-ping had devoted almost 40 years of his professional to improving rice yield, and managed to go as high as 19.0 tons/ha. The five farmers learned SRI only in 2008. Within three years, they had broken Prof. Yuan’s record.

THREE: SRI is reliable. If only one farmer had broken the world record, we might hear comments like, “Tsamba!” (“Lucky break!”). If two or even three had done it, Doubts might persist among a few hardline skeptics. But with five SRI farmers, there is no doubt at all, that SRI is effective in improving rice yields.

We have been promoting SRI among farmers since 2000, long before it became the world record-holder in rice yield. With this development, there is no more reason for the government to keep ignoring this method.

Philippine SRI map: where are the SRI trainers, farm trials and trainings conducted so far

I have not been very active in posting messages lately because a particular advocacy has kept me really busy.

I coordinate SRI Pilipinas a national network of farmers and organic farming advocates that promote the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). I’ve made a few previous posts about this method, including the Nov. 2011 news that five SRI farmers in India have broken the world record in rice yield previously held by world-famous Prof. Yuan Long-ping, inventor of hybrid rice.

I am posting here two maps — 1) Luzon, and 2) Visayas and Mindanao — showing the areas where we have SRI trainers (who can conduct one-day trainings for free), where we have conducted one-day SRI trainings (almost 130 throughout the country so far), and where farmers have conducted SRI trials, as far as we know.

The maps may not show any place marker at first (teardrop-shaped icons) at first, because loading them takes time, especially over slow connections. Be patient. The man/woman icons stand for locations where we have SRI trainers.

The Luzon SRI map:

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=217660476975716136489.0004bfc0fb7925a183aed&ie=UTF8&t=m&ll=14.186057,121.52486&spn=8.393733,5.322091&output=embed
View SRI Pilipinas (Luzon) Trainers, Trials and Trainings in a larger map

 

The Visayas/Mindanao SRI map:

https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&msid=217660476975716136489.0004c186951922be416d5&ie=UTF8&t=m&ll=9.283828,122.552533&spn=6.462083,7.511902&output=embed
View SRI Pilipinas (Visayas & Mindanao) Trainers, Trials and Trainings in a larger map

Eventually we hope to have at least one SRI trainer in every rice-producing province.

 

 

From NOT ON OUR WATCH, a book of martial law recollections: the full text of “Lest We Forget” by Roberto Verzola

The book NOT ON OUR WATCH by Jo-Ann Maglipon (ed.) is now in bookstores, after a successful launching at the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, Central Bank Bldg., last May 10.

I wrote a chapter in that book, which is entitled “Lest We Forget”. The chapter includes my personal account of the torture I suffered under the military, the first time I tell the full story in public.

If you want the full text of this chapter, please click on this link: Full text of the chapter,

My online version is slightly different from the book version due to minor editing changes.

Some excerpts: (p.155-158)

Sometime in the afternoon, still within the critical twenty-four hour period after our arrest, my name was called. I braced myself for another round of interrogation. It was Esguerra and a few more officers. I repeated my Story, which no one believed, of course. So they made me do a “squat jump.” With one foot forward and the other back, you squat first, then jump as high as you can, falling with the other foot forward. Then you jump again, for as many times as you can. Until I could barely stand. No body contact at all. Esguerra told me, “O hindi yan torture ha! (See, that’s no torture!) We do that to PMA cadets all the time!” Well, I’ll take the “squat jump” over blows to the solar plexus anytime. After the session, my legs hurt so much and I couldn’t walk by myself. Two men had to assist me on the way back.

But I was not going back to the ISAFP jail cell. I was being “borrowed” by another intelligence unit for further interrogation. ISAFP had its methods; Metrocom intelligence had its own. Metrocom was the Metropolitan Command of the Philippine Constabulary (PC), headed then by Gen. Fidel Ramos. Lieutenant __ Garcia of the Metrocom Intelligence and Security Group (MISG) took me to Camp Panopio along EDSA near the PC headquarters. He made a perplexing comment which made sense only later, “So, you’re taking up electrical engineering!”

The MISG office was bigger than the ISAFP office I saw. It was longish, and the middle served as an aisle separating a row of perhaps eight to ten tables. I was taken to the far corner, on the right. With Garcia was a senior officer whose name escapes me now. After the usual questions, I told them the Story. They didn’t believe me. They gave me paper and time to write my personal background and history in the movement. Same Story. Then they brought in the Machine. Two lengths of wire extended from it, both ending with bare wire, the insulation stripped. One end was tied around the handle of a spoon. The Machine is a field telephone generator. It has a wheel with a handle. The wheel turns a dynamo, which generates electricity that causes a distant telephone to ring. An operator at the distant end picks up the phone, and the two ends can talk. The field generator probably generates forty to sixty volts and, if turned really fast, may give as high as ninety volts or even more. The standard house wiring in the Philippines is 220 volts. In the U.S. it is 110. My interrogators tied the end of one wire around my right index finger and inserted the spoon into my pants, on my right waist, until it rested where the leg meets the lower abdomen, near the crotch. My body would complete the circuit.

When I was young, I used to watch my uncles and older cousins as they slaughtered a pig. As soon as the pig realized something bad was going to happen, it would shriek for dear life. It was a grating shriek of helplessness, desperation, and terror, one that rang in your mind long after the pig was dead. It was that kind of scream that issued from my throat every time my torturers spun the wheel around. It was totally involuntary, the automatic response of a body invaded by an alien current of a thousand spikes snaking through one’s cells and nerves. I could stifle it no more than I could stop my hand from jerking away when shocked briefly by live house wiring.

Across the aisle were two civilian Metrocom employees. They were women, apparently on overtime. They went on with their work, as if they heard or saw nothing. Business as usual. No sign of surprise or concern. Metrocom apparently used the electric shock treatment often enough to make its civilian employees inured to screams.

Since it was mid- to late afternoon by the time we got to the Metrocom headquarters, I knew that my twenty-four-hour margin was almost up. I had already missed several meetings. Within twenty-four hours, houses whose locations I knew would be abandoned. In those twenty-four hours, I had forced myself to forget all the names and aliases I had ever heard in the underground. (As a consequence, my memory of people’s names has been bad ever since.) I also realized that the smallest information the MISG got from me now would only lead to more questions and further interrogation. And if I gave some more, then they would want even more, and the torture would not stop until I had given all. So I’d have to spill all, or nothing. At this time, they were still asking me details about the story I had made up. And we all knew that this was leading to a dead end.

Eventually, they moved the spoon’s position so that it now cupped my genitals. The senior officer had become so exasperated by this time that he spun the wheel really hard, earning them a particularly bad case of screaming. He admonished me, “Ang hirap sa iyo, alam mo na, na alam namin, na nagsisinungaling ka, ipinipilit mo pa rin ang istorya mo! Kaya pala Obet ang pangalan mo, e. Obstinate ka!” (“The problem with you is, you know that we know that you are telling us lies. Yet, you insist on your story! So that’s why your name is Obet. You’re obstinate!” I thought back: Well, it’s all or nothing. Whether my twenty-four hours are up or not yet, I choose nothing.

Spin a wheel. All or nothing?

Nothing. Like Basilio.

When they escorted me to my cell, I was utterly exhausted, physically and emotionally. But I was at peace with myself.

A day after, the jailers brought in a new detainee. It was Jun Suarez, who handled the printing of Taliba ng Bayan! I stared at him, unbelieving. I was never even asked about it, so how did they trace him? Apparently, Jun’s wife, who was a journalist, was under suspicion and placed under surveillance. That led the military to their home, where Jun kept the printing paraphernalia. So, the “sunog” (series of raids) was still raging.

One or two nights after that, we were telling each other stories to pass the time and distract ourselves from the tension. Onie was telling us about his girlfriend, who had broken up with him, a real sob story. Then it was the turn of somebody else, who ended up telling us about his girl too. After he gave a detailed description, Onie’s ears perked up. He was suddenly curious. Then Onie asked, pointing to his face, “Did she have a mole here?” Silence. When it dawned on us that he thought that was his girlfriend, we all spontaneously erupted into hard, long, boisterous, tearful laughter. As the laughter rolled on and on, we sensed that the tone had gradually shifted, and it was now directed at our jailers. As it died down, someone shouted a defiant, “’Tang ‘na ‘nyo!” (cuss words are the same in any language, aren’t they?) That triggered another round of even more boisterous, intentionally louder laughter, directed this time at more than our jailers. It sounded like we wanted the whole camp – no, the whole city – to hear our taunts. In the darkest days of martial rule in the Philippines, inside a cramped jail cell in a military camp that housed captives with battered bodies, unbroken human spirits proclaimed their freedom and flaunted their defiance of dictatorship with contemptuous laughter at their military captors and the authoritarian system that jailed them. I slept well that night.

New world record in rice yield set using the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

Below are the first few paragraphs of a story on the business pages of the Philippine Star (page B-4), Dec. 18, 2011.

Indian farmer sets new world record in rice yield

MANILA, Philippines – Indian officials have confirmed a farmer’s claim of beating the rice yield world record of 19 tons per hectare previously held by hybrid rice developer Yuan Long-ping of China.

Sumant Kumar, a rice farmer from India’s state of Bihar who uses a new rice-growing method called the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), reported a harvest of 22.4 tons (448 cavans) per hectare last November. His claim was confirmed in a verification visit by Bihar State agriculture officials, including the agriculture director, the official in charge of national food security, “a team of agriculture experts”, and the Nalanda district agriculture officer, who said, “the team found the claims true.”

Sumant’s neighbors got slightly lower yields, but still ahead or at par with the previous world record. Rice farmer Krishna Kumar got 22 tons, Nitish Kumar 19.6, Ramanand Singh 19.2 and Sanjay Kumar 19 tons. All used the SRI method. Almost 90 percent of rice farmers in the Nalanda district are already using SRI, district agriculturist Sudama Mahto said.

100-kilometer zone around the BNPP

The radius of the danger zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant that must be evacuated has now been extended to 100 kilometers.

If a similar 100-kilometer danger zone were declared around the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP), the following maps show which areas will be affected:

100-km zone around the BNPP

100-km zone around the BNPP

100-km zone around the BNPP

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Batangas

 

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated.

In Batangas, the following areas will be affected:

 

 

BNPP danger zone 38/43

BNPP danger zone 39/43

BNPP danger zone 40/43

BNPP danger zone 41/43

BNPP danger zone 42/43

BNPP danger zone 43/43

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Cavite

 

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated. The western most barangays of Laguna, Brgy. Magsaysay and Brgay. Langgam are just outside the danger zone.

In Cavite, the following areas will be affected:

 

BNPP danger zone 30/43

BNPP danger zone 31/43

BNPP danger zone 33/43

BNPP danger zone 34/43

BNPP danger zone 35/43

BNPP danger zone 36/43

BNPP danger zone 37/43

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Southern Metro Manila

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated.

In the southern part of Metro Manila, the following areas will be affected:

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Northern Metro Manila

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated.

In the northern part of Metro Manila, the following areas will be affected:

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Bulacan

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated.

In Bulacan, all town lying along Manila Bay and the southwestern towns of San Rafael, Baliuag, Bustos, Pandi, Sta. Maria, including San Jose del Monte City are within the danger zone.

BNPP danger zone 17/43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Pampanga

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated.

In Pampanga, all towns will have to be evacuated, except a few barangays on its northeastern border with Nueva Ecija.

 

BNPP danger zone 10/43

 

 

 

BNPP  danger zone 11/43

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 12/43

 

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 13/43

 

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 14/43

 

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 15/43BNPP danger zone 16/43

 

The southern part of the map above includes the northern Bulacan barangays of Banca-banca, Pulong Bayabas, and Panlumalok, all within the danger zone.

 


BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Tarlac

Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant. But the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

These series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will have to be evacuated.

In Tarlac, Bamban and parts of Capas (Sta. Juliana, O’Donell will be inside the danger zone (bluish tint), while all other towns will be outside the danger zone.

BNPP danger zone 4/43

 

Barangays Sta. Juliana, O’Donnell, Marugbu, and Cutcut of Capas are inside the danger zone.

 

bnpp danger zone 5/43

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 6/43

 

 

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 7/43

 

 

 

 

 

BNPP danger zone 8/43

 

 

 

 

 

BNPP hypothetical 50-mile (80.5 km) radius evacuation zone: Zambales

While Japanese authorities declared a 20-km evacuation zone around the Fukushima nuclear plant, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued on March 16, 2011, a warning to U.S. citizens living in Japan to evacuate to safer areas if they were living within 50 miles (80.5 km) of the radioactive plant.

The following series of maps show which parts of Central Luzon, Metro Manila and Souithern Tagalog will be affected if a similar 80.5-km radius evacuation zone had to be declared due to a hypothetical nuclear disaster at the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (14.6291667N, 120.3136111E). The whole of Bataan will of course have to be evacuated.

In Zambales, all southern towns up to Botolan will be inside the danger zone (bluish tint). The capital Iba and all towns to its north will be outside the danger zone.

Zambales danger zone

The map below covers southeast of the map above.

Zambales danger zone

Zambales danger zone

The map below shows east of the map above and may include parts of Pampanga.

Zambales danger zone 3/3

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